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As established by Ordinance , and amended by Ordinance , the Port St.
Planning the development of ports and harbours involves many complex, technical tasks.
Master planning for priority ports
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. A framework for sustainable port planning in inland ports: a multistakeholder approach Michael Dooms. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. A framework for sustainable port planning in inland ports: a multistakeholder approach. IntroductionThe European Commission, in its White Paper on transport policy European Commission, , admits that the projected growth of road transport demand could seriously penalise the economy in the long term, and therefore wants to stimulate alternative 'green' modes such as rail, short-sea shipping and inland waterway transport in order to reduce congestion and pollution, thereby contributing to the general objective to achieve a more sustainable economic development.
An ambitious action plan, which consists of several concrete projects, was adopted for these purposes. One of the main means to attain a modal shift in freight transport, is the promotion of short-sea shipping and inland waterway transport as energy-efficient, less polluting and thus more environmental friendly transport modes. The European Commission has also proposed a new programme Marco Polo to support intermodal investment projects offering alternatives to road transport in the early years before they become economically viable, in particular projects in the container and short sea-shipping sector with cross-border impacts.
This modal shift from road transport to short-sea and inland waterway transport implies that a network of multimodal logistical nodes is established in the hinterland of seaports, which are the main gateways to the European hinterland.
Inland ports can play a key role as logistical centres in this network of multimodal logistical nodes by concentrating the infraand supra-structure needed to support the growth of short-sea and inland waterway transport. Surprisingly, the European Commission confirmed this only very recently, when European inland ports where formally included in the Trans-European Networks TEN European Commission, , and specific guidelines where adopted with regard to infrastructure projects of common interest.
It is expected that the role of inland ports will become of key importance, as inland waterway traffic will almost double by European Commission, If inland ports want to strengthen and maintain their role as important logistical nodes in the multimodal network, they will have to establish strategic plans that formulate answers for the important future challenges ahead.
This paper will therefore focus on the strategic planning process for inland port authorities, taking into account the specific environment where most of these ports are operating in. In most cases this geographical environment will be the centre of large urban regions, or other dense populated regions. It is argued in this paper that long-term strategic planning has to take into account all stakeholders' perspectives and preferences, in order to realize sustainable port development.
Empirical evidence, under the form of a framework, adopted during the development of a strategic masterplan horizon for the inland port of Brussels' authority, will illustrate this stakeholder-based strategic planning process.
The paper is built around five sections. Section 2 gives a brief overview of the literature on strategic port planning, and the role of stakeholder management applied to ports and transport infrastructure. Section 3 focuses on the role of inland ports in an urban region, and discusses the important issues faced by inland port authorities when further developing their activities.
Section 4 describes the framework that was applied during the strategic planning process for the inland port of Brussels. Section 5 concludes with a critical assessment of the proposed framework, and with directions and suggestions for further research. Strategic port planning and stakeholder management2. Strategic port planning As most firms and organisations, which are influenced by a complex, uncertain and highly competitive environment, port authorities have become aware of the need for strategic planning in order to respond to the challenges they are faced with.
This complex environment is driven by technological, economic, social and political developments, which results in a multidisciplinary approach to strategic port planning. The future challenges faced by port authority managers imply choosing between different development alternatives, which make the port authority able to seize the opportunities and control the risk and uncertainty tied to their environment. The interest of academics in strategic planning applied to ports where 'ports' refered implicitly to seaports has risen only recently, and has left open a very interesting research agenda.
Until the early nineties, there were few adapted strategic planning frameworks that port authority managers could use in order to formulate their strategy and assess or evaluate their long-term planning objectives, except general foundations Frankel, In recent years, the increased complexity of the environment has stimulated the introduction of more traditional strategic management frameworks in the port sector to serve purposes of strategic planning.
In particular the resource-based approach, suited to formulate and assess planning within complex organisations, has been applied and adapted to serve strategic port planning purposes Coeck et al. This resource-based view has since then been further elaborated, with the creation of adapted frameworks and tools which contribute to the in-depth analysis of seaport strategies Haezendonck, In support of the resource-based view applied to port strategic planning, other conceptual frameworks have been applied to the port sector, more specifically the 'Porter Diamond', presenting the determinants of port competitiveness Coeck et al.
Furthermore, a 'Port Strategy Matrix' was developed, which was an application of the 'Corporate Strategy Matrix' Rugman and Verbeke, , presenting four generic strategies that ports could choose to gain and sustain their competitive advantage.
It was argued that several dimensions microand macro-economic, and public and private sector are intimately linked as determinants of port competitiveness, this linkage expressing the need for an integrated approach to strategic port planning.
Planning: a task for the port authorityThere have been earlier discussions about the necessity of port authorities as a public sector organisation Goss, b andc. A number of arguments for and against were presented, whereby an important argument for having a port authority was the need for planning of port facilities among other arguments were the provision and regulation of property rights, the provision of public goods and the containment of externalities resulting from port activities.
The main disadvantage of not having a port authority would then be the lack of co-ordination and organisation of the planning process, as the planning role would be in the hands of different organisations, each showing diverse interests and possessing specific capabilities government agencies, private organisations.
The argument of co-ordination is very convincing, as it seems that nowadays there is general acceptance that strategic port planning is a task and a responsibility of the port authority. Different port authority 'models' exist and have been described extensively, and are applied throughout the world.
Generally, port authorities are public sector bodies responsible to a certain level s of government national, regional, local, municipality.
The main determinant of a port authority model is the degree in which the port authority assumes a role in the diverse port activities Goss, d. Two extreme models were presented: the 'comprehensive' port model, where a port performs all the port services, and the 'landlord' port, which leases or rents infra-and supra-structure to private firms, who perform almost all other port services cargo handling, etc. It is assumed in this paper that the port authority is organized under the form of a 'landlord' model, and that it takes responsibility for the strategic planning process.
The time horizon of port planningWhen starting a strategic planning process, the time horizon is an important parameter to define different types of port planning. In the case of port authorities, three different types of planning exist see Coeck et al. This requires a visionary approach on the development of port infrastructure for the whole port area. This paper focuses entirely on the third type of long-term planning, and more specifically the development of strategic masterplans for inland ports.
Corporate social responsibility, Stakeholders management and the port sector Management literature has been focusing its attention intensively to stakeholder theory in recent years, as more firms became aware of the need for implementing corporate social responsibility CSR aspects in their planning activities.
Although there have been no empirical results showing that adopting CSR-related behaviour leads to superior financial performance, it is argued that CSR contributes substantially to the overall performance of a firm and to the objectives of the firm's stakeholders, including society Burke and Logsdon, These authors also argued that superior CSR performance can lead to the creation of strategic business-orientated benefits.
Therefore, organisations have to take into account CSR objectives in the planning process, and more specifically they should i identify the critical stakeholders who contribute to the achievement the mission and strategic objectives of the organisation and ii identify the policies that can contribute to the objectives of these critical stakeholders.
The most important problem that arises is the identification of these critical stakeholders. There exist many definitions about the concept of the 'stakeholder', and no universally accepted definition has been accepted until now, which leads to diverse foundations of the 'stakeholder theory' and 'stakeholder management' an in-depth discussion is found in Donaldson and Preston, The broadest definition of the concept is found in the work of Freeman where a "stakeholder is by definition any individual or group of individuals that can influence or are influenced by the achievement of the organisation's objectives".
Attempts to further specify categories of stakeholders are very difficult for several reasons, mostly in relation to the relative importance or equality of the different stakeholders or the 'value' and the 'stake' of each stakeholder , and the measurement of performance with regard to the objectives of different stakeholders. Furthermore, the objectives of the stakeholders are in most cases very diverse, and even conflicting.
Even inside a stakeholder group, there may be conflict between individual entities with regard to the objectives of the group which poses problems with regard to the legitimacy of the particular stakeholder group, more specifically when the performance or the strategy of the organisation in which the group has a 'stake' has to be evaluated see Hill and Jones, In order to define and classify stakeholders, it has been argued for the above reasons that the number of stakeholders is, in fact, infinite Argenti, Nevertheless, other views have arisen and pose that because of the vagueness of the general concept, the types or classes of stakeholders depend on the organisation's purpose Campbell, In our view, this second approach seems very appropriate, as the stakeholder concept has initially been developed for firms, whereas other particular organisations were not included in the discussion public bodies, not-for-profit organisations.
Furthermore, it has been argued that extension to other kinds of organisation leads to confusion, as the environment and situations confronted by these organisations are profoundly different Donaldson and Preston, The objectives of a port authority clearly differ from those of conventional firms Frankel, , hence the need for a case-by-case approach, depending on the nature of the organisation and its mission and objectives.
Stakeholder theory applied to the port sector has appeared only recently in the academic discussion, as port activities and port development mostly driven by port extension programmes experience growing resistance, in particular by local community groups who oppose to the perceived negative externalities of port activities.
Notteboom and Winkelmans described the port environment and identified different categories of stakeholders: internal stakeholders part of the port authority organisation , and three groups of external stakeholders i.
Furthermore, a classification of stakeholders was presented, on the basis of their involvement in the process, and their impact on the process. It was argued that in order to accomplish sustainable port development, the stakeholder approach will become an important determinant of port competitiveness, given the ever increasing complexity of the port environment. The inland port environmentThe preceding sections gave a brief overview on strategic port planning and the role of stakeholder theory in the port sector.
It was implicitly assumed in most of these findings that a port is a 'seaport', making no distinction between inland ports and seaports.
However, although there are many parallels between both port 'types', we have to consider some differences when developing a strategic port planning framework for inland ports. First, there are differences on the level of the hinterland dimension. The hinterland of most seaports stretches beyond national borders e. In fact, most inland terminals are a part of the hinterland network of seaports, as they can be considered as important inland hubs for collection and distribution of traffic flows, taking potential congestion away from seaports Notteboom and Winkelmans As a consequence, where seaports have a clear national and even supra-national functionality, inland ports are merely considered of local importance.
This has important institutional consequences, as the need and existence for seaports is less contested than the need and existence for inland ports in urban regions from a public policy perspective assuming that transport policy is in most countries a national or regional competence as it is proven that the presence and scale of seaports contributes substantially to the competitiveness of the national or regional economies. Moreover, this scarcity of land almost imposes a stakeholder approach to port development, as potential and even actual sites 1 reserved for port activities, are under immense pressure of waterfront developments aimed at housing, recreation and more noble economic functions under the form of office spaces for the service sector or commercial developments e.
The redevelopment to other land uses as housing and recreation is clearly more attractive to local community stakeholders and political movements, but this puts enormous pressure on the remaining, often adjacent port activities and represents therefore a serious threat, see e.
As a result, inland ports have to defend their existence continuously against the pressure of these stakeholder groups, hence the need of a collaborative stakeholder approach in order to maintain a broad social basis for having port activities in the urban region, and safeguarding land in order to meet future port extension requirements.
Furthermore, when we consider sustainable inland port development as a part of sustainable urban development, it has already been argued that a multitude of actors has to be involved in order to create a broad basis for policy objectives and measures aimed at sustainable urban development Priemus, Thirdly, there are differences in the degree of awareness of port activities between inland ports and seaports.
The scale of seaport activities could be considered as an advantage, as local community groups and public bodies are entirely aware of the existence of a port, in visual terms as the port activities have a clear dominance, but more importantly in economic terms as a large part of employment on the regional level is directly or indirectly generated by port activities. On the contrary, inland ports possess less economic scale, and their activities are not omnipresent in visual terms, nor in economical terms, although in some cities they account for a relative large share of regional employment and regional value-added.
This lack of awareness of a successful port authority has a negative influence on the perceived legitimacy of port activities. In the next section, we will present a framework that allows sustainable inland port development, taking into account the specific characteristics of port activities and stakeholders objectives in an urban region.
A framework for long-term strategic planning for inland ports Assumptions and guidelinesThe preceding sections lead to the assumptions and guidelines of the framework on inland port planning, which will be presented in this section. The main assumptions are:-We assume that the port authority is organized under the form of 'landlord' model, i.
In some cases, the 'landlord' port also supplies general services as security, pilotage, etc. Is has indeed been argued that strategic planning should be a task of the port authority, and should not be left over to individual firms, public bodies or governmental agencies.
The main guidelines are:-A stakeholder based approach is very appropriate for long-term port planning, given the increasingly complex environment in which ports operate.
This demands another approach to inland port planning. More particularly, sustainable inland port planning in an urban region should be a part of sustainable urban planning,given the dominance of local functionality of an inland port 4. The inland port planning process Figure 1 gives an overview of the planning process, which was applied during the development of the masterplan. This framework offers an insight into the planning process that was applied for each distinct port zone.
Port planning is a management tool that assists in the decision-making process and is primarily focused on guiding port activities by adopting a strategic perspective of the situation. A satisfactory and efficient management requires making decisions based on a systemic point of view, which includes the sphere of influence. The development of planning instruments of each Port Authority must coincide with the strategic framework of the Spanish port system or with the general port sector framework, in the case of regional Port Authorities.
D. Memos. National Technical University of Arhens. Zografos, Greece. pacity or upgrading port operations. The issue. of port development is examined at three. dif-.
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To assist public and private interests with the development of lands in the working waterfront of the Duluth-Superior port. To guide how lands can best be managed to support and promote current and long-term protection of valuable and limited deep water berths, global waterborne connections, water dependent businesses, and maritime facilities. To identify the various local, state, and federal policies and regulations that can impact development activities within or adjacent to specific parcels of land and sections of the waterway.
Following from the success of the first edition, written by a collection of eminent figures in the field, this new edition continues to look at the rational planning for port facilities requirements berths, storage and cargo handling equipment , organisations, management and operations with relation to planning and design of ports and marine terminals. Back to Book Listing. View Chapters. Select All.
Create an Account - Increase your productivity, customize your experience, and engage in information you care about. The plan — a blueprint for future growth — will outline the steps to develop the property, determine what infrastructure is needed and how much it will cost. Phase 1: Phase 1 feasibility included preliminary analysis related to development of Barlow Point property as a marine terminal, conceptual plan development, due diligence investigations and a market analysis. Phase 1 was completed in Phase 2: Phase 2 includes a current study to aid in the determination of future pier structures, surveying, easement development, conceptual design of the rail onto the property, conceptual design of a new entrance off of State Route and continuing environmental monitoring.
Port master planning guides sustainable development of priority ports balancing long-term economic growth, job creation, environmental values and community interests, while providing protection for the Great Barrier Reef. Historically, regulation of port planning in Queensland has been limited to land use planning on strategic port land SPL —the land owned or controlled by a port authority under the Transport Infrastructure Act The Queensland Government is leading priority port master planning, working closely with port authorities, local governments and other key stakeholders. Transparent public consultation will be conducted as an important part of the priority port master planning process.
master planning for the development of port infrastructure for a period of one or more decades. (d). Strategic planning differs from these.
We're a leader in port development and planning and related sectors. Our engineers have been actively engaged with port authorities in developing engineering solutions which allow existing quays, wharves and jetties to be upgraded to receive vessels larger than those for which they were originally designed. The planning of port and marine development requires extensive studies at the front end of the project to ensure every aspect of the project has been addressed for both its commercial and technical feasibility. We have the capability to provide all of these front end consultancy services including the following: Market studies Demand and traffic forecasting Intermodal transport studies Optioneering studies Capital and operational cost determination Business plan studies Investment appraisal Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies Master planning Financial economic appraisal Efficiency improvement As a multi-disciplinary consultancy, our planners can bring together expertise and experience in a number of related sectors which are essential in the context of port planning i. Where appropriate, we use 3D modelling techniques as concept planning tools which are effective in resolving interfaces but also invaluable in presenting proposals to non-technical stakeholders.
Midwest and eastern Canadian regions. The Port also supports cruise ship visits, lobster fishing, seafood processing and distribution, passenger ferries, ship repair, fuel and ice facilities and waterfront tourism and recreation. In the interest of advancing a coordinated economic development plan to ensure the future viability of the industrial port the Boston Redevelopment Authority and the Massachusetts Port Authority joined efforts in drafting the Port of Boston Economic Development Plan.
The Haines Port Development initiative involves studying and creating a plan to rehabilitate, redesign, and construct a modern and expanded port. Box Haines, AK