douglas mcgregor x and y theory pdf

Douglas Mcgregor X And Y Theory Pdf

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In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control.

Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories

You are using an ad blocker. ToolsHero is a free knowledge platform on management methods, models and more. Our core business model is advertisement which helps us to create this free platform for you! Please help us by disabling your ad blocker. After reading you will understand the background and the practical basics of these leadership styles. He referred to these two perceptions as Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X and Theory Y

In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. View All Articles. Similar Articles Under - Motivation. To Know more, click on About Us.

Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:. Working for an X theory boss isn't easy - some extreme X-Theory managers make extremely unpleasant managers, but there are ways of managing these people upwards.


McGregor believed that managers' basic beliefs have a dominant influence on the way that organisations are run. Managers' assumptions about the behaviour of people are central to this. Theory X and Theory Y describe two views of people at work and may be used to describe two opposing management styles.


McGregor's legacy: the evolution and current application of Theory Y management

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McGregor's XY Theory of Management

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1 Comments

  1. Volnacichbuzz1953

    During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization.

    19.05.2021 at 02:28 Reply

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