emerging and reemerging diseases in india pdf

Emerging And Reemerging Diseases In India Pdf

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The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors.

Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world.

Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas.

The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels. Their control requires continuing surveillance, research and training, better diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. Emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases and diseases caused by multiresistant organisms constitute the major threats in India. This review of bacterial emerging and re-emerging diseases should be of critical importance to microbiologists, clinicians, public health personnel and policy makers in India.

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Countries 1 — Google Scholar. Chugh T D Multidrug resistant community pathogens; a global perspective. Health Popul. Guerrant R L Cholera-still teaching hard lessons; N. Indian Med. Mathur T N Brucella strains isolated from cows, baffaloes, goats, sheep and human beings: Their significance with regard to the epidemiology of brucellosis; Indian J.

Australia 28 — Woodford N Successful, multiresistant bacterial clones; J. Download references. Correspondence to T. Reprints and Permissions. Chugh, T. Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India. J Biosci 33, — Download citation.

Published : 01 November Issue Date : November Search SpringerLink Search. Abstract There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. Chugh Authors T. Chugh View author publications.

Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. About this article Cite this article Chugh, T.

Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. The microbial world is complex, dynamic and constantly evolving. Infectious agents reproduce rapidly, mutate frequently, cross the species barrier between animal hosts and humans, and adapt with relative ease to their new environments. Because of these traits, infectious agents are able to alter their epidemiology, their virulence, and their susceptibility to anti-infective drugs.

Infectious diseases continue to impose unpredictable burdens on global health and economies, a subject that requires constant research and updates. The results show that wild animals mainly bats, birds and primates play an important role in the dissemination of etiological agents mainly viruses, as a new coronavirus called Novel Coronavirus in extensive geographic regions. Moreover, these wild animal organisms can act as the site for essential biotic synergy among several pathogenic microorganisms, promoting a higher rate of adaptation, mutation and even genetic recombination, with consequent stimulation of new strains and subtypes, inducing new infectious agents with unknown virulent potential. In conclusion, the monitoring of these diseases and adequate preparation for possible epidemics and pandemics are fundamental conditions for the mitigation of their future impact. The zoonotic threat of these etiological agents and the impact on public health can be enormous as shown by the ongoing epidemic of novel coronavirus nCoV infections.

Infectious viral diseases are the never-ending challenge that can emerge or re-emerge in unpredictable regions and at unpredictable times. Human beings are facing an intractable problem in unexpected time and place due to these viral diseases. Human, ecological, and viral related factors are the contributing factors in the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Travel, mass gathering, urbanization, fragile or deteriorated health systems, weak disease surveillance system, limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, war, migration, poor hygienic practice, illegal animal trade, hunting and eating infected animals are among human-related factors that contribute in emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Deforestation, climate change, invasion of animal habitats, the building of dams and intensive agricultural practice are contributing factors to the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. The last but not least risk factor for emergence or re-emergence of infectious viral disease is the virus-related factors.

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: a potential pandemic threat

There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels.

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Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors.

Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases.

Голос был странный, какой-то сдавленный: - Adonde file. Куда он поехал? - Слова были какие-то неестественные, искаженные. Панк замер.

 - Тут сказано, что сверхкритическая масса плутония составляет тридцать пять и две десятых фунта. - Вот именно! - крикнул Джабба.  - Посмотрите уран.

Внутри было протянуто восемь миллионов футов телефонного кабеля, общая площадь постоянно закрытых окон составляла восемьдесят тысяч квадратных футов. Сьюзан рассказала Дэвиду про КОМИ НТ, подразделение глобальной разведки, в распоряжении которого находилось немыслимое количество постов прослушивания, спутников-шпионов и подслушивающих устройств по всему земному шару. Ежедневно тысячи сообщений и разговоров перехватывались и посылались экспертам АНБ для дешифровки.

Глаза ее не отрывались от экрана.

Личный помощник директора отказывался верить ее словам. - Никогда не слышал об. - Никто не слышал. Это было сделано тайно. - Мидж, - сказал Бринкерхофф, - Джабба просто помешан на безопасности ТРАНСТЕКСТА.

Одно только ее беспокоило: всякий раз, когда они куда-то ходили, он решительно противился тому, чтобы она сама платила за. Сьюзан не могла с этим смириться, видя, как он выкладывает за их обед свою дневную заработную плату, но спорить с ним было бесполезно. Она в конце концов перестала протестовать, но это продолжало ее беспокоить.

 Разумеется. Как глупо с моей стороны. Прошу меня извинить.

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2 Comments

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    Request PDF | Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview | The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has.

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