climate change and sustainable urban development in africa and asia pdf

Climate Change And Sustainable Urban Development In Africa And Asia Pdf

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Book Review: "Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Development in Africa and Asia"

This site uses cookies to optimize functionality and give you the best possible experience. If you continue to navigate this website beyond this page, cookies will be placed on your browser. By , the world's urban population will increase by 1. City leaders must move quickly to plan for growth and provide the basic services, infrastructure, and affordable housing their expanding populations need.

This trend is expected to continue. By , with the urban population more than doubling its current size, nearly 7 of 10 people in the world will live in cities. However, the speed and scale of urbanization brings challenges, including meeting accelerated demand for affordable housing, well-connected transport systems, and other infrastructure, basic services, as well as jobs, particularly for the nearly 1 billion urban poor who live in informal settlements to be near opportunities.

Once a city is built, its physical form and land use patterns can be locked in for generations, leading to unsustainable sprawl. Cities play an increasingly important role in tackling climate change, because their exposure to climate and disaster risk increases as they grow. Almost half a billion urban residents live in coastal areas, increasing their vulnerability to storm surges and sea level rise. Cities are also in the frontline of combating epidemics.

It is impacting not only public health but also the economy and social fabric. Simultaneously a health crisis, social crisis, and economic crisis, COVID is laying bare how well cities are planned and managed and the impact this is having on the extent to which each city is able to function — or not — especially during times of crisis.

COVID is a massive challenge for cities on the frontline, rich and poor alike. In normal times, there might be many attributes that cities strive to compete on and excel at the global level, including livability, competitiveness, and sustainability, but in any given day and especially in a time of crisis, a city must function well for its citizens.

National and local governments have an important role to play to take action now, to shape the future of their development, to create opportunities for all. Specifically, the Bank adopt integrated approaches to transform the fundamental systems of cities, focusing on four priorities as follows:. The first key strategy is to help cities strengthen their planning systems and local capacities to better design, plan, and manage city assets and urban environments.

Many cities lack adequate planning and technical capacities to manage challenges associated with rapid urbanization, such as drastically increasing global waste, inefficient commuting, lower access to job opportunities, and air pollution.

In this context, the Bank provide cities with various diagnostic tools that would enable informed planning decisions, as well as investments in urban infrastructure and service delivery.

This will also include public health social awareness programs, labor-intensive public work programs and slum upgrading as early recovery measures to COVID, as well as leveraging technology for effective health emergency response and recovery in cities. The second strategy aims to maximize multiple financial resources for cities through enhancing fiscal and financial systems. While most of this need lies in the developing world, only a small fraction of this urban infrastructure can be supplied by aid and many cities face critical financial constraints to address their own infrastructure challenges.

The Bank is well-positioned not only to help cities expand access to finance from multiple sources, including private finance, but also to strengthen their fiscal capacities and systems that can be sustained in the long run. The third key element is to promote territorial development in developing countries and cities.

Economic activities are concentrated in only a few places — only 1. This concentration is inevitable, and it is also desirable. The evidence suggests that prosperous and peaceful countries have been successful by bringing people and businesses closer to each other in cities, harnessing agglomeration economies to boost productivity, job creation, and economic growth.

The last key strategy is to build resilience to disasters and climate change. With increasingly concentrated people and assets in cities, a complex range of growing shocks and stress imposes tremendous costs on the globe. Poorer segments of the population are particularly vulnerable, since they tend to live in more hazardous settlements and lack the necessary safety nets to recover from economic or environmental shocks. Without inclusive and climate-informed urban development, climate change can push an additional million urban residents fall back into poverty by A series of prototypes have been piloted to build a body of knowledge on urbanization challenges and public policy implications in a variety of country settings, including Colombia, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

At the city level, City Diagnostics is an informative tool to pursue a shared vision of the city. Other recent analytical work and tools to help cities manage urbanization and support sustainable, inclusive growth include:. The World Bank helps cities and national governments put in place the financial framework to attract investment and grow in a sustainable manner.

The Bank is helping countries establish and strengthen urban institutions to deliver improved infrastructure and services, for example:. Innovative ways of leveraging investment are also needed, including from private and non-traditional sources, such as land value capture, sometimes in combination with multilateral development banks MDBs and other agencies; by reforming intergovernmental fiscal transfers; and strengthening municipal finances.

This guidance document developed by GPSC includes the Measuring Frame work that incorporates indicators into a clearly laid out process for cities to track their urban sustainability.

GPSC is currently utilizing the SDG 11 core indicators to roll-out a benchmarking assessment for more than 30 cities worldwide. In Colombia , the national government has put forward a series of institutional and policy changes to promote the peace building process. In Argentina , the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Urban Transformation Project is supporting the improvement of living conditions for around 48, residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area.

The city governments are developing and implementing medium-term, integrated development and asset management plans with evidence-based prioritization for municipal infrastructure and services, resulting in increased revenue collection and reduced expenditures, providing financial headroom. Automated systems for public access to information and grievance redressal, as well as updated websites with information on budgets and procurements, are ensuring greater accountability.

Effective solid waste management plays an important role in creating sustainable, livable, low-carbon cities, including improving health, education, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Using sophisticated measurement systems from a constellation of orbiting satellites, the Earth observation partnership helps communities protect and manage natural resources and plan urban growth. This guide discusses good practices and success studies for linking climate change to community priorities and issues such as disaster risk reduction and economic development. The World Bank's Urbanization Reviews offer a framework for city leaders to make tough decisions on development by providing diagnostic tools to identify policy distortions and analyze investment priorities.

Understanding Poverty Topics Urban Development. This page in: EN dropdown. Urban Development. Specifically, the Bank adopt integrated approaches to transform the fundamental systems of cities, focusing on four priorities as follows: 1.

Enhance Planning System and Local Capacity The first key strategy is to help cities strengthen their planning systems and local capacities to better design, plan, and manage city assets and urban environments. Promote Territorial and Spatial Development The third key element is to promote territorial development in developing countries and cities.

Build Climate Smart and Urban resilience The last key strategy is to build resilience to disasters and climate change. Beyond its huge health impacts, there are significant economic losses to households, firms, and governments as well as large-scale disruptions to lives and livelihoods as a result of lockdowns, disruption of supply chains, and a steep drop-off in commercial activity as a result of COVID Innovative instruments such as our Development Policy Financing with Catastrophic Draw Down Option Cat DDO where, if a disaster due to a pandemic or extreme weather event strikes, countries that had previously prepared and approved a Cat-DDO would have quick access — less than 48 hours — to financing for emergency response.

The CAT-DDO is a financing instrument that acts a little like a parametric catastrophe bond, in that they provide a source of capital contingent on a disaster being declared in the beneficiary country.

They are similar to an insurance or reinsurance policy, or a catastrophe bond, except that once triggered the contingent financing facility opens up a loan, or line of credit, to the World Bank. Financing the New Urban Agenda The World Bank helps cities and national governments put in place the financial framework to attract investment and grow in a sustainable manner. To do so, the program connects cities to co-financing by donors and other international financial institutions IFIs.

The program also supports cities in combining public investment with private opportunities through private sector engagement, where feasible. The initiative has trained over municipal officials from cities in 26 countries. Another report, Raising the Bar for Productive Cities in Latin America and the Caribbean , provides a rigorous analysis of the key factors constraining the productivity performance of cities in the region and provides evidence to show how planning, investments and policy reforms to promote a more connected, and, therefore, integrated, urban system can foster economic growth and inclusion.

A Road Map for Sub-Saharan Africa , brings together a large body of analytic work to show that urban livability and prosperity cannot be pursued effectively without distinguishing priorities for larger cities from smaller towns. Lack of institutional capacity in the smaller towns across Africa may require a slower transition of responsibilities for planning and investment management, as well as enhanced technical assistance so that institutions can perform their tasks.

In Kenya , northern areas of the country have mostly been excluded from the benefits of rising living standards.

Soon after the Idai and Kenneth cyclones hit that affected millions of people, the port of Beira was back in operation and the city cleaned up, partly thanks to this project.

The project also includes solar-powered street lighting, which at one point was the only source of light in the city. The financing supports disease prevention, food security, social protection, and early-warning systems in the impacted communities. Through the CRP , supported by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery GFDRR , the Swiss Economic Secretariat, and other partners, the World Bank is helping cities around the world raise the finance they need to build resilience to climate change and disaster risks, connect investors with bankable projects, and keep millions of people safer and stronger.

The objective of the CRP is to support cities in embedding resilience into investment projects and mobilizing capital beyond World Bank loans. To do so, the program offers support in the planning process and capital mobilization. To support planning, the program engages with the tech community delivering digital tech solutions to better understand the built and natural environment. To support finance, the program engages with an ecosystem of donors, IFIs, and financial advisors to crowd in the necessary market to deliver finance to cities.

Urban resilience goes hand-in-hand with environmental sustainability. In Depth. Additional Resources. Media Inquiries.

Washington, D. Kristyn Schrader-King kschrader worldbank.

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The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". They are included in a UN Resolution called the Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda The resolution identifies specific targets for each goal, along with indicators that are being used to measure progress toward each target. To facilitate monitoring, a variety of tools exist to track and visualize progress towards the goals. All intend to make data more available and more easily understood. Each goal typically has targets, and each target has between 1 and 4 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. The targets are either "outcome" targets circumstances to be attained or "means of implementation" targets.

Book Review: "Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Development in Africa and Asia"

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Asia's cities are changing rapidly. Over the next 20 years, they will have to expand their infrastructure and services to cater to another one billion people. In order to be able to meet the growing development needs in the long term and in line with the goals of the Agenda for Sustainable Development, cities will need extensive support with the planning, financing, construction and maintenance of the necessary infrastructure. The aim of the Cities Development Initiative for Asia CDIA is to provide support for cities by way of pre-investment feasibility studies and the prioritisation of projects. Potential financing institutions for such urban infrastructure initiatives are often confronted with the fact that the relevant infrastructure projects are not sufficiently ready for financing.

The Covid crisis has caused more disruption than any other event in recent history, leaving scars that will last for years to come.

Scientific assessment indicates that the coastlines of Southeast Asia are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Climate change challenge is real and urgent in Southeast Asia. This paper presents a desktop review of the state of climate change research and policy in Southeast Asia.

Cities are growing differently today than before.

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