Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria And Antibiotics Pdf
File Name: gram positive and gram negative bacteria and antibiotics .zip
- Understanding antibiotic resistance
- Gram-negative Bacteria Infections in Healthcare Settings
- Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Understanding antibiotic resistance
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Gram-negative bacteria cause infections including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis in healthcare settings. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to multiple drugs and are increasingly resistant to most available antibiotics. These bacteria have built-in abilities to find new ways to be resistant and can pass along genetic materials that allow other bacteria to become drug-resistant as well. Gram-negative infections include those caused by Klebsiella , Acinetobacter , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. Outbreak investigations have led to a better understanding of how to control these bacteria in healthcare. In the past 3 years, the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion has assisted in at least 10 investigations of outbreaks of gram negative infections.
Gram-negative Bacteria Infections in Healthcare Settings
Gram-positive bacteria are classified by the color they turn after a chemical called Gram stain is applied to them. Gram-positive bacteria stain blue when this stain is applied to them. Other bacteria stain red. They are called gram-negative. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria stain differently because their cell walls are different.
However, there are a wide range of antibiotics available, and they vary both in their usage and their mechanism of action. Bacteria themselves can be divided into two broad classes — Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The classes derive these names from the Gram test, which involves the addition of a violet dye to the bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria retain the colour of the dye, whilst Gram-negative bacteria do not, and are instead coloured red or pink. Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibodies and antibiotics than Gram-positive bacteria, because they have a largely impermeable cell wall. The bacteria responsible for MRSA and acne are examples of Gram-positive bacteria, whilst those responsible for Lyme disease and pneumonia are examples of Gram-negative bacteria.
A team of Princeton researchers has identified a compound that can kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria via two independent mechanisms, as well as resist antibiotic resistance. The compound, designated SCH, works by simultaneously targeting bacterial folate metabolism and membrane integrity. When tested in vivo, SCH was found to be more effective than a combination of existing treatments against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A more potent derivative of SCH, called Irresistin, was also found to be effective against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a mouse vaginal infection model. Pathogenic bacteria can be classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative, after the scientist Hans Christian Gram, who developed a staining technique that can distinguish between them.
Different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus xylosus, S. White butterfly, Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Teddy Junior. Growth inhibition of selected bacterial strains was examined using 28 different single antibiotics and 7 antibiotic mixtures. Because of the lack of toxic effects on in vitro plants of 7 species it was proposed that these antibiotic mixtures can be applied advantageously to inhibit bacterial growth in tissue culture.