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- Study of Deep Drawing Process Parameters: A Review
- Process Design and FE Analysis of Multi-Stage Rectangular Deep Drawing with Extreme Aspect Ratio
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Show all documents The effective stresses were, respectively, From the graph it is clear that the effective stress increased with the increase of step depth. For 5 mm of tool radius the effective stress was low as shown in Fig 3 c. The effective stress increases with the increase of coefficient of friction. The principal stresses S 11 , S 22 and shear stress S 12 are shown in figs.
The properties of metals and alloys such as materials, such as AA alloy , AA alloy , AA alloy , AA alloy , Ti-Al-4V alloy , EDD steel , are greatly influenced by their microstructure, which may be revised by alloying elements, by heating or heat treatment or by plastic deformation.
Progress in sheet metal forming technology is also associated with development of new techniques for sheet metal cutting. Santhosh Kumar, V. Srija, A. Ravi Teja, A. Analysis of deep drawing process to predict the forming severity considering inverse finite element and extended strain-based forming limit diagram method to obtain the initial blank shape and the thickness distribution in a deformed part. Although their method does not need to have initial boundary conditions, its accuracy reduces the simulation of parts with vertical walls.
The mentioned methods considered the problem in the 3-D coordinate system and used nonlinear strain-stress relations that have to be solved numerically; as a result, they required high computation cost and their convergence depends on the appropriate selection of the initial guess. Based on the work of Liu and Karima , Assempour et al. Their formulations are based on the infinitesimal strain relations and the principle of potential energy minimization.
In their method, the 3D problem is unfolded on the flat sheet and therefore, treated as 2D one. Their formulation ends to a linear system of equations which can be easily solved without convergence problems involved in nonlinear methods.
This method is very efficient and fast in obtaining the initial blank shape and size. Although due to the nature of linear formulations, the strain values are less accurate compared with the nonlinear IFEM approaches, they have shown that the results accuracy is acceptable, and it is logical to use their method because it is too fast and its convergence is guaranteed.
Parametric Optimization of Warm Deep Drawing Process Aluminium Alloy Abstract— Deep drawing involves the conversion of flat thin sheet metal blanks into parts of the desired shape.
Although applications of deep drawing processes at different elevated temperatures have not yet been used effectively, it is clear that this process is going to be a very dominant manufacturing application of quality cups produced by this process in this future. Al is primarily used in domestic and also in nuclear applications. In the present investigation, the load and displacement, temperature relationship are given and found that the load increases as the depth increased, and after reaching the maximum, load gradually decreases in case of the successful cups , but in case of failure, the load decreases suddenly change.
A finer grain size after severe plastic deformation increases the mechanical strength, fracture toughness, ductility and fatigue characteristics of the metals and alloys. SPD processed metals and alloy are extensively used in bolts, micro bolts, piston, sport articles and in medical implants .
The Cyclic extrusion and compression CEC process is used to allow arbitrarily large strain deformation of a sample with retention of the original sample shape and the deformed are examined. The result shows that the effective strain, effective stress and hardness values increased from 1. Like aluminum, magnesium is rela- tively weak in the pure state and for engineering purposes is almost always used as an alloy. Even in alloy form, however, the metal is characterized by poor wear, creep and fatigue properties.
Its modulus of elasticity is even less than that of aluminum, being be- tween one fourth and one fifth that of steel. Thick sections are required to provide adequate stiffness, but the alloy is so light that it is often possible to use thicker sections for the required rigidity and still have a lighter structure than can be obtained with any other metal. Cost per unit volume is low, so the use of thick sections is generally not prohibitive.
For engineering applications magnesium is alloyed mainly with aluminum,zinc, manganese, rare earth metals, and zirconium to produce alloys with high- strength — to-weight ratios.
Applications for magnesium alloys include use in aircraft,missiles, machinery, tools, and material handling equipment, automobiles and high- speed computer parts. On the other positive side, mag- nesium alloys have a relativelyhigh strength-to-weight ratio with some commercial alloys attaining strengths as highas Mpa.
Pourboghrat et al. Overall, it was concluded that hydroforming is most ideal for deep drawing of aluminum sheets with sharp radii features. Gorji et al. They found that by applying a maximum fluid pressure less than a certain extent, the thinning ratio increases. Increasing the maximum fluid pressure to more than the special amount, does not have any effect on improvement of thickness distribution. Salahshoor et al. In their work, the effects of pressure path and geometrical parameters of the punch on thickness distribution were examined.
They found that after forming the concave profile of the work piece, by increasing the maximum fluid pressure, the critical regions thickness does not change. Also increasing the concavity height and punch corner radius affects the thickness reduction in critical regions. Azodi et al. They also carried out experiment to validate their analytical results. They reported that maximum fluid pressure decreases by increasing the friction coefficient between the sheet and the punch.
Lin et al. This supports the previous literatures  on the SPIF process , whereby the step size increases the accuracy of the final product. Robot speed has less significant compared to step size, as it only contributes to about The wall angle contributes the least with a percentage contribution ratio of only 5.
Extra deep drawing EDD steels are the most widely used steel material today for automotive applications to reduce the weight of outer-body car panels while maintaining strength, formability and dent resistance. Extra deep drawing steels are extensively used in enamelling applications such as cookers, refrigerator panels, baths, kitchenware, sink units. Texture being one of the important parameter of steel sheets as it induces plastic anisotropy that would be beneficial to draw ability of steels.
Factors like mechanical properties, metallographic, lubrication with blank, die and punch geometry, process parameters like punch speed, Blank holding force BHF etc. Metal forming is one of the most important steps in manufacturing of a large variety of Products. In the recent practical cost conscious world, owing for relatively low cost, high productivity and greater control over technical and aesthetic parameters, so many expensive casts, rolled and forged parts have been replacing with sheet metal parts.
Deformation and Finite Element Flow Studies of Aluminium Based Copper Particulate Reinforced Metallic Composites Abstract: Work has been carried out to study the upshot of alloying constituent dispersal in the base metal by using composite manufacture method. Results are compared with the alloy having same concerto.
The hardness and compressive strength of the composites were determined as a function of the copper powder content. The best results were achieved with the aluminum composites with A alloy. Deformation and flow studies were carried out and the results were compared with finite element methods in terms of compressive and hydrostatic stresses. It is programmed to constitute the material and structural properties. These properties define behavior of structure on loading conditions.
Nodes are assigned at certain region throughout the material depending on the stress levels of a particular area. The areas having larger stress usually have a higher node density as compared to those which experiences little or no stress. Various points of interests may consist of: fillets, corners, high stress areas, fracture point of earlier testes materials. The meshed part will be seen like a spider web in that from each node, and it extends to each adjacent nodes.
During forming, as the punch moved into the die cavity and contacted the blank, parts of the blank contacting the punch lost some of their heat to the punch, resulting in minimal temperature of the blank at punch shoulder radius and increased temperatures towards the die shoulder radius. This can result in avoiding localized necking. Finite Element Modeling of A phenomenological Constitutive Model for Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloy and its Application for Preload Process Analysis of Bolted Joint In this section, cyclic responses for ratcheting associated with one dimensional cyclic behavior of SMA by current FE model are verified by some typical experimental results outlined in this section  and additional experimental observations made in the current work to describe the transformation ratcheting during the stress—controlled cyclic loading at room temperature.
The typical tensile-unloading stress—strain curve of super—elastic SMA is shown in Fig. It is shown an apparent super—elastic feature of SMA. However, its curve presents a little bit different from the description in the referred literature for the NiTi SMA manufactured by other companies e. It exhibits an apparent hardening behavior during the stress—induced martensite transformation.
The high residual strain implies that there is an incomplete phase. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Hydromechanical Deep Drawing of a Bilayer Conical Cup In recent years, several researches have concen- trated on forming of multi-layer sheets using differ- ent methods that some of them are presented in fol- lowing sentences. Habibi Parsa et al. It was presented the effects of efficient parame- ters on the final part shape the stress and strain dis- tribution along radial distance of cup.
Lang et al. Finite Element Analysis Of Car Alloy Wheel In general, there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task: a Pre-processing - defining the finite element model and environmental factors to be applied to it b Analysis s[r].
The finite element analysis has been carried out to model the single point incremental forming process using ABAQUS software code. The process variables of SPIF were sheet thickness, step depth, tool radius and coefficient of friction. The process variables have been optimized using Taguchi techniques. The major process variables influencing the SPIF of hemispherical cups were tool step depth andcoefficient of friction. Finite element simulation of two-point incremental forming of free-form parts Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birjand, P.
Abstract: Two- point incremental forming method is considered a modern technique for manufacturing shell parts. The presence of bottom punch during the process makes this technique far more complex than its conventional counterpart i. Most of the previous works regarding numerical simulation of incremental forming method have concentrated on the single - point type of this technique. Moreover, all of these simulations have considered simple geometries like truncated cone, truncated hemisphere and truncated regular pyramid, which are based on well-known mathematical functions.
In this study, a novel simplified procedure is presented for the finite element simulation of two- point incremental forming of free-form parts. The procedure is based on the extraction of tool-path points by using CAM software and the finite element model. In the current study, it will be shown how simulated results can be applicable for gaining useful information about the tearing of deforming sheets, selecting suitable numerical machines for practical forming processes and the deformation quality of sheets.
Instead, all the equations from all the elements over the entire structure need to be solved simultaneously. This task can only be performed by computers.
It is noteworthy that, as the structure is broken into a larger number of elements, a greater number of simultaneous equations need to be solved.
Thus, typically, results for more complex structures require more computing power. Functions of the FEA are a very accurate tool used for failure analysis purposes, used to quantify design defects, fatigue, buckling, and code compliance, can be used to distinguish between failures due to design deficiencies, materials defects, fabrication errors, and abusive use, provides quantified.
Study of Deep Drawing Process Parameters: A Review
Carrying out various experiments organized based on the design of experiments method, the deep drawing process is investigated entirely in this paper. The influences of eight main process parameters including punch and die radii, blank thickness, punch velocity, lubrication conditions at the interfaces of blank-die, blank-punch, and blank—blank holder as well as the blank holder force on the process outputs comprising punch force and sheet thickness variation are investigated. The analysis of variance method is considered to define the procedure by which these eight parameters be adjusted for deep drawing process to minimize the punch force and maximize the uniform thickness distribution in the products. It was found that for punch force, in addition to blank thickness, die and punch radii as well as the BHF are, respectively, the main essential parameters. Besides, blank thickness, die radius, and lubrication condition at the holder-blank interface are the most effective parameters on thickness distribution. Accordingly, initial blank thickness and die shoulder radius could be taken into account as two important parameters in deep drawing process should be set up appropriately to accomplish the minimum punch force and uniform thickness distribution together.
Process Design and FE Analysis of Multi-Stage Rectangular Deep Drawing with Extreme Aspect Ratio
Authors: Pawan S. Nagda , Purnank S. Bhatt , Mit K. Keywords: anisotropy , deep drawing , finite element simulation , earing.
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Show all documents The effective stresses were, respectively, From the graph it is clear that the effective stress increased with the increase of step depth.
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Objective: i. To do the deep drawing experiment of brass (or any metallic) specimen with the help Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a Analysis of deep drawing operation.