western classical music and gender pdf

Western Classical Music And Gender Pdf

On Sunday, May 16, 2021 8:15:17 PM

File Name: western classical music and gender .zip
Size: 12913Kb
Published: 16.05.2021

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture , including both liturgical religious and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from to the Classical period , this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation , in use since about the 11th century.

Classical music

Inequalities in the classical music profession have come on the agenda in recent years. In the UK, there have been a range of initiatives that promote women, musicians with disabilities, as well as black and minority-ethnic players. These findings raise the question of why inequalities are ongoing, especially if we consider that cultural and creative workers have the most liberal and left-wing views compared to all other industrial sectors.

By drawing on wider research on the working lives of artists and creatives, this contribution provides an important, broader cultural industries perspective that allows us to understand some of the dynamics that perpetuate gender, racial, and class inequalities in the field of classical music. The working lives of musicians are precarious. Musicians frequently encounter money problems and work insecurity. The prevalence of precarious and unpaid work is a significant barrier to some for getting in and getting on in the classical music profession.

Many sectors within the cultural and creative industries rely on informal recruitment, and it has been well documented that these practices disadvantage women, black and minority ethnic workers, as well as individuals from working-class or lower middle-class backgrounds. The reliance on networks, however, tends to disadvantage women, as well as working-class and black and minority ethnic workers. Linked to the reliance on informal recruitment and networking, homophily also plays a role in excluding female workers and those from working-class and black and minority ethnic backgrounds.

Maintaining a good reputation is key to getting work in the cultural and creative industries and the classical music profession. Higher Education also plays a key role in fostering inequalities in the cultural and creative industries. Notably, early music education seems to be as important as Higher Education in this context. Early music education, in addition to Higher Education, is thus another context that fosters inequalities in classical music practice.

A further issue that is frequently raised in debates about inequalities in the cultural and creative industries, especially in relation to gender, is that of parenting and, more specifically, mothering. Indeed, it is often argued that women are underrepresented in the cultural and creative industries because of difficulties reconciling managing a career with raising a family. It is therefore very difficult for women with children to present themselves as ideal screenwriters.

This seems to apply regardless of whether or not they are or will become mothers. In emphasising the role of constructions of the ideal worker, I do not seek to discount other important factors, such as the predominance of freelancing and the negative impact this has on entitlement to maternity benefits.

While this is frequently lauded, it may indeed make it more difficult for women to carve out the time[51] and space[52] to work while negotiating domestic and caring responsibilities. In the context of the classical music profession, the association of masculinity with creativity may explain why female artists tend to be overrepresented in supportive roles such as teaching , while men inhabit roles that are considered more creative such as composition.

The ideal, classical musician is not only gendered, but also classed. Cultivating restraint, for example, is a key part of classical music practice, but also a cornerstone of bourgeois subjectivity. Through her focus on subjectivity and the body, Bull makes an important contribution, which highlights that the link between class and classical music education is more than just economic: classical music practice in itself is associated with bourgeois traits; in reproducing classical music, we also reproduce classed and gendered selves.

The image of Asians as automatons, robots without souls, appears frequently in the Western imagination […]. If whiteness is associated with musicality, and musicality deemed a key marker of good musicianship, then the ideal classical musician appears to be white. This does, of course, not mean that it is impossible for black and minority ethnic musicians to forge a career in classical music. As a study by Charles A. Elliott on the effects of race and gender on the evaluations of music performers by musician educators has shown, black musicians were consistently evaluated lower than white musicians, even though the musical performance was identical videotapes of male and female, as well as black and white performers were synchronised to identical performances.

Cultural work is increasingly though not exclusively governed by the values of entrepreneurialism, and the field of classical music is not exempt from this trend. If workers are businesses that have to be marketed, they have to promote themselves. Crucially, self-promotion is a gendered process and more difficult for female musicians to engage in.

Indeed, female musicians have reported that they are reluctant to engage in self-promotion. Instead, I draw on a performative approach to gender and am interested in how gender norms are reiterated through, for example, the association of modesty with femininity.

Second, self-promotion is regarded as a commercial activity and positioned as un-artistic. Lastly, the notion of selling yourself may evoke the spectre of prostitution due to the sexualisation of female musicians and the fact that it is mainly women who sell their bodies. As mentioned in the introduction to this piece, there is now more awareness and discussion of inequalities in the classical music profession.

This marks an important, cultural shift. There is not only more open debate about inequalities in the wider, classical music industry, but also amongst musicians. As I show in detail elsewhere, conversations about inequalities do not necessarily lead to political change.

Second, a fatalist sentiment can characterise discussions of inequalities, presenting structural change as unachievable. And third, acknowledgement and recognition of privilege, crucial to overcoming inequalities, is not a consistent feature of inequality talk, which in turn risks reinforcing the normativity of whiteness and middle-classness in the field of classical music. These findings caution against overly optimistic accounts of the shift towards a more open discussion of inequalities in the classical music profession and beyond.

Equally important, insightful accounts of unequal power relations can co-exist with an individualist outlook. The industry, and particularly the domains where freelance work is prevalent, has yet to offer safe, reliable, and meaningful ways to report and deal with sexual harassment.

In this context, women and victims of sexual harassment are left with individualist solutions and may feel that they themselves should stand up against, challenge, or call out sexual misconduct. This, however, is an unrealistic expectation and one that places a huge burden on those who are adversely affected by sexual misconduct. The figure of the strong, empowered woman who calls out perpetrators may thus disempower working-class, queer, trans, black and minority-ethnic women in particular ways.

These findings and arguments caution against overly celebratory accounts of the recent shift towards a more open discussion of inequalities in the classical music sphere and the cultural industries more generally. Equally important, common working practices, such as the reliance on unpaid work, networking, or self-promotion, have exclusionary effects.

As I have shown, these practices are not equally accessible to everyone, but contribute to classed, gendered, and racialised hierarchies. Discussions of inequalities cannot become an end in itself, but need to lay the groundwork for meaningful, structural change. Her research interests are in gender, media, and culture with a focus on engagements with feminism and the politics of creative work.

Burke and Jackie McManus, Art for a few: exclusion and misrecognition in art and design higher education admissions National Arts Learning Network, Introduction Inequalities in the classical music profession have come on the agenda in recent years. Precarious Work The working lives of musicians are precarious. Informal Recruitment and Homophily Many sectors within the cultural and creative industries rely on informal recruitment, and it has been well documented that these practices disadvantage women, black and minority ethnic workers, as well as individuals from working-class or lower middle-class backgrounds.

Parenting A further issue that is frequently raised in debates about inequalities in the cultural and creative industries, especially in relation to gender, is that of parenting and, more specifically, mothering. The Gendered Politics of Self-Promotion Cultural work is increasingly though not exclusively governed by the values of entrepreneurialism, and the field of classical music is not exempt from this trend.

This website is using cookies. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website.

If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on this website.

Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings

Towards a Meaningful Instrumental Music Education. Methods, Perspectives, and Challenges View all 21 Articles. Institutions that teach Western classical music in higher education in the West have been increasingly reliant on international students from Asia, particularly China, to fulfill recruitment targets. This article examines research in music performance tuition and the general higher education literature on pedagogy for international students. After demonstrating that Asian musicians feel the presence of a covert racial and cultural prejudice caused by assimilationist values in both Western classical music and in higher education, it reviews various approaches to teaching international students in higher education and brings this into dialogue with research on music performance pedagogy.


PDF | The inclusion of women within the music profession is a recent of women's participation to the classical music profession in Western.


Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings

This article examines the prejudices that women continue to experience in the field of composition in the twenty-first century. More specifically, it analyzes the host of factors that may be responsible for this reality from three perspectives: the notion that the language of modernist music is a gendered discourse, the role of precedent in the acceptance of women composers, and the role of societal stereotypes. Finally, it offers suggestions for overcoming the obstacles that prevent contemporary women composers from receiving due recognition. Keywords: music , women composers , stereotypes , Catherine Parson Smith , sexual linguistics , modernism , prejudices.

Associated Data

In this study claims that music communicates gendered meanings are considered, and relevant literature is reviewed. We first discuss the nature of meaning in music, and how it is constructed and construed. Examples of statements of gendering in the literature are cited, and the problems identified by writers who have questioned their validity are considered. We examine the concepts underlying terminology that has been used in inconsistent and contradictory ways. Three hypotheses are posed, and tested by means of two listening tasks. Results are presented that indicate that gendering is not inherent in musical structures, but is contributed to the perceptual event by the listener.

Historical surveys of women in music have traditionally focussed on accounts of exceptional women as performers and composers. They are associated with the sizable literature on music as a traditional component of women's socialization and education. As a contemporary category of enquiry, the study of women in music is directly related to women's history, itself one of several scholarly research areas associated with the systematic study of gender. In this context, gender is treated as a socially constructed concept based on perceived differences between the sexes and a primary way of signifying relationships of power. This article focusses on the collective experience of women within Western and non-Western musical traditions. For details of the lives and works of women musicians, see the articles on individual women.

 - Это обнадеживает: яблоки и яблоки. - Чем отличаются изотопы? - спросил Фонтейн.  - Это должно быть что-то фундаментальное. Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик. Сьюзан взглянула на ВР. Последний защитный слой был уже почти невидим.

Explaining Inequalities in the Classical Music Profession

Для панков? - переспросил бармен, странно посмотрев на Беккера. - Да.

 Ну конечно, - сказала она, все еще не в силах поверить в произошедшее.  - Он хотел, чтобы вы восстановили его доброе имя. - Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор.  - Танкадо потребовал ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Teaching Silence in the Twenty-First Century: Where are the Missing Women Composers?
english pdf for pdf

2 Comments

  1. ZoГ© L.

    Hades lord of the dead pdf history english literature david daiches pdf

    19.05.2021 at 14:58 Reply
  2. Donaldo C.

    The history of africa the quest for eternal harmony pdf international business the challenges of globalization free pdf

    26.05.2021 at 09:57 Reply

Leave your comment

Subscribe

Subscribe Now To Get Daily Updates