File Name: indian folk tales and legends .zip
7 Fascinating Indian Folk Tales
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales , proverbs and jokes. They include material culture , ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group.
Folklore also includes customary lore , the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact.
Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can typically gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration. The academic study of folklore is called folklore studies or folkloristics, and it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph.
The word folklore , a compound of folk and lore , was coined in by the Englishman William Thoms ,  who contrived the term as a replacement for the contemporary terminology of "popular antiquities" or "popular literature". It is the knowledge and traditions of a particular group, frequently passed along by word of mouth. The concept of folk has varied over time. When Thoms first created this term, folk applied only to rural, frequently poor and illiterate peasants.
A more modern definition of folk is a social group that includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions.
These now include all "things people make with words verbal lore , things they make with their hands material lore , and things they make with their actions customary lore ". The folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a social group and how they are transmitted. Transmission is a vital part of the folklore process; without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, they would be relegated to cultural archaeologists.
These folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally, as a rule anonymously, and always in multiple variants. The folk group is not individualistic, it is community-based and nurtures its lore in community. Having identified folk artifacts, the professional folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs, customs, and objects for the group, since these cultural units  would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group.
That meaning can however shift and morph, for example: the Halloween celebration of the 21st century is not the All Hallows' Eve of the Middle Ages, and even gives rise to its own set of urban legends independent of the historical celebration; the cleansing rituals of Orthodox Judaism were originally good public health in a land with little water, but now these customs signify for some people identification as an Orthodox Jew. By comparison, a common action such as tooth brushing , which is also transmitted within a group, remains a practical hygiene and health issue and does not rise to the level of a group-defining tradition.
This meaning is at the core of folkloristics, the study of folklore. With an increasingly theoretical sophistication of the social sciences , it has become evident that folklore is a naturally occurring and necessary component of any social group; it is indeed all around us.
Folklore began to distinguish itself as an autonomous discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. A particular figure in this development was Johann Gottfried von Herder , whose writings in the s presented oral traditions as organic processes grounded in locale. After the German states were invaded by Napoleonic France, Herder's approach was adopted by many of his fellow Germans who systematized the recorded folk traditions and used them in their process of nation building.
This process was enthusiastically embraced by smaller nations like Finland, Estonia, and Hungary, which were seeking political independence from their dominant neighbours.
Folklore as a field of study further developed among 19th century European scholars who were contrasting tradition with the newly developing modernity. Its focus was the oral folklore of the rural peasant populations, which were considered as residue and survivals of the past that continued to exist within the lower strata of society. This interest in stories, sayings and songs continued throughout the 19th century and aligned the fledgling discipline of folkloristics with literature and mythology.
By the turn into the 20th century the number and sophistication of folklore studies and folklorists had grown both in Europe and North America. Whereas European folklorists remained focused on the oral folklore of the homogenous peasant populations in their regions, the American folklorists, led by Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict , chose to consider Native American cultures in their research, and included the totality of their customs and beliefs as folklore.
This distinction aligned American folkloristics with cultural anthropology and ethnology , using the same techniques of data collection in their field research.
This divided alliance of folkloristics between the humanities in Europe and the social sciences in America offers a wealth of theoretical vantage points and research tools to the field of folkloristics as a whole, even as it continues to be a point of discussion within the field itself. The term folkloristics , along with the alternative name folklore studies , [note 1] became widely used in the s to distinguish the academic study of traditional culture from the folklore artifacts themselves.
Congress in January ,  to coincide with the Bicentennial Celebration , folkloristics in the United States came of age. Added to the extensive array of other legislation designed to protect the natural and cultural heritage of the United States, this law also marks a shift in national awareness.
It gives voice to a growing understanding that cultural diversity is a national strength and a resource worthy of protection. Paradoxically, it is a unifying feature, not something that separates the citizens of a country. In the diversity of American folklife we find a marketplace teeming with the exchange of traditional forms and cultural ideas, a rich resource for Americans". The folk of the 19th century, the social group identified in the original term "folklore" , was characterized by being rural, illiterate and poor.
They were the peasants living in the countryside, in contrast to the urban populace of the cities. Only toward the end of the century did the urban proletariat on the coattails of Marxist theory become included with the rural poor as folk. The common feature in this expanded definition of folk was their identification as the underclass of society.
Moving forward into the 20th century, in tandem with new thinking in the social sciences , folklorists also revised and expanded their concept of the folk group. By the s it was understood that social groups , i. The first group that each of us is born into is the family, and each family has its own unique family folklore. As a child grows into an individual, its identities also increase to include age, language, ethnicity, occupation, etc. Each of these cohorts has its own folklore, and as one folklorist points out, this is "not idle speculation… Decades of fieldwork have demonstrated conclusively that these groups do have their own folklore.
This folklore can include jokes, sayings and expected behavior in multiple variants, always transmitted in an informal manner. For the most part it will be learned by observation, imitation, repetition or correction by other group members. This informal knowledge is used to confirm and re-inforce the identity of the group. It can be used both internally within the group to express their common identity, for example in an initiation ceremony for new members.
Or it can be used externally to differentiate the group from outsiders, like a folkdance demonstration at a community festival. Significant to folklorists here is that there are two opposing but equally valid ways to use this in the study of a group: you can start with an identified group in order to explore its folklore, or you can identify folklore items and use them to identify the social group. Beginning in the s, a further expansion of the concept of folk began to unfold through the study of folklore.
Individual researchers identified folk groups that had previously been overlooked and ignored. One notable example of this is found in an issue of the Journal of American Folklore , published in , which is dedicated exclusively to articles on women's folklore, with approaches that had not come from a man's perspective.
Individual folklore artifacts are commonly classified as one of three types: material, verbal or customary lore. For the most part self-explanatory, these categories include physical objects material folklore , common sayings, expressions, stories and songs verbal folklore , and beliefs and ways of doing things customary folklore.
There is also a fourth major subgenre defined for children's folklore and games childlore , as the collection and interpretation of this fertile topic is peculiar to school yards and neighborhood streets. That said, each artifact is unique; in fact one of the characteristics of all folklore artifacts is their variation within genres and types. It is however just this required variation that makes identification and classification of the defining features a challenge. And while this classification is essential for the subject area of folkloristics, it remains just labeling, and adds little to an understanding of the traditional development and meaning of the artifacts themselves.
Necessary as they are, genre classifications are misleading in their oversimplification of the subject area. Folklore artifacts are never self-contained, they do not stand in isolation but are particulars in the self-representation of a community. Different genres are frequently combined with each other to mark an event. There might also be special games played at birthday parties which are not generally played at other times. Adding to the complexity of the interpretation, the birthday party for a seven-year-old will not be identical to the birthday party for that same child as a six-year-old, even though they follow the same model.
For each artifact embodies a single variant of a performance in a given time and space. The task of the folklorist becomes to identify within this surfeit of variables the constants and the expressed meaning that shimmer through all variations: honoring of the individual within the circle of family and friends, gifting to express their value and worth to the group, and of course, the festival food and drink as signifiers of the event. The formal definition of verbal lore is words, both written and oral, that are "spoken, sung, voiced forms of traditional utterance that show repetitive patterns.
Verbal lore is not just any conversation, but words and phrases conforming to a traditional configuration recognized by both the speaker and the audience. For narrative types by definition have consistent structure, and follow an existing model in their narrative form.
It might be one you've already heard, but it might be one that the speaker has just thought up within the current context. Another example is the child's song Old MacDonald Had a Farm , where each performance is distinctive in the animals named, their order and their sounds. Songs such as this are used to express cultural values farms are important, farmers are old and weather-beaten and teach children about different domesticated animals.
Verbal folklore was the original folklore , the artifacts defined by William Thoms as older, oral cultural traditions of the rural populace. In his published call for help in documenting antiquities, Thoms was echoing scholars from across the European continent to collect artifacts of verbal lore. By the beginning of the 20th century these collections had grown to include artifacts from around the world and across several centuries.
A system to organize and categorize them became necessary. This was later expanded into the Aarne—Thompson classification system by Stith Thompson and remains the standard classification system for European folktales and other types of oral literature. As the number of classified oral artifacts grew, similarities were noted in items that had been collected from very different geographic regions, ethnic groups and epochs, giving rise to the Historic—Geographic Method , a methodology that dominated folkloristics in the first half of the 20th century.
When William Thoms first published his appeal to document the verbal lore of the rural populations, it was believed these folk artifacts would die out as the population became literate.
Over the past two centuries this belief has proven to be wrong; folklorists continue to collect verbal lore in both written and spoken form from all social groups. Some variants might have been captured in published collections, but much of it is still transmitted orally and indeed continues to be generated in new forms and variants at an alarming rate. The genre of material culture includes all artifacts that can be touched, held, lived in, or eaten.
They are tangible objects with a physical presence, either intended for permanent use or to be used at the next meal.
Most of these folklore artifacts are single objects that have been created by hand for a specific purpose; however, folk artifacts can also be mass-produced, such as dreidels or Christmas decorations. These items continue to be considered folklore because of their long pre-industrial history and their customary use. All of these material objects "existed prior to and continue alongside mechanized industry. Folklorists are interested in the physical form, the method of manufacture or construction, the pattern of use, as well as the procurement of the raw materials.
Of primary significance in these studies is the complex balance of continuity over change in both their design and their decoration. In Europe, prior to the Industrial Revolution , everything was made by hand.
While some folklorists of the 19th century wanted to secure the oral traditions of the rural folk before the populace became literate, other folklorists sought to identify hand-crafted objects before their production processes were lost to industrial manufacturing.
Just as verbal lore continues to be actively created and transmitted in today's culture, so these handicrafts can still be found all around us, with possibly a shift in purpose and meaning. There are many reasons for continuing to handmake objects for use, for example these skills may be needed to repair manufactured items, or a unique design might be required which is not or cannot be found in the stores.
Many crafts are considered as simple home maintenance, such as cooking, sewing and carpentry.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales , proverbs and jokes. They include material culture , ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore also includes customary lore , the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can typically gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts.
Read as many books as you like Personal use and Join Over Folk Tales From Kashmir. Add links. Gypsy Folk Tales. These folk-tales are full of simplicity and musical occurrences, for they are the literature of a class for whom every incident in the old rut of birth, love, pain, and death has cropped up unchanged for centuries: who have steeped everything in the heart: to whom everything is a symbol.
Howard Kingscote, Joseph Jacobs and more. Go to full list of Indian folk tales. About: The rich culture and vast landscape of India come alive in their ancient folk tales and folklore. Influenced by Hinduism, Indian folk tales are robust with central religious figures and moral lessons; they were used to preserve history, important people and places, as well as the religious rites and ceremonies of various Indian regions. From turtles who talk too much, jackals and mangos, to tigers and laughing fish, Indian folk tales delight people of all ages with beautiful narratives on friendship, morality and philosophy. Clever tricksters, nefarious villains and brave heroes make up the compelling and enduring folk history of India. Won't Give and Mr.
Author, Title, Edition, Format, Price, Puborg. Wide-awake Stories: Tales told by children in the Panjab and Kashmir, , PDF Kindle EPub, Free, Oxford Univ.
India: Folklore, Tales, Legends, Myths
Malaysian folklore is the folk culture of Malaysia and other indigenous people of the Malay archipelago as expressed in its oral traditions, written manuscripts and local wisdoms. Malaysian folklores were traditionally transmitted orally in the absence of writing systems. Oral tradition thrived among the Malays, but continues to survive among Orang Asli and numerous bornean ethnic groups in Sarawak and Sabah.
The Sanskrit term niti is also a part of the regular vocabulary of almost all the languages of the Indian subcontinent, including Hindi, Sinhala, Nepali, Bengali, Tamil, and Assamese amidst others , and can be translated as morality, correct behavioral conduct, or the rules of conduct. The notion of niti is reflected across many genres of folklore, including fables, rhymes, poems or chhara, songs, ballads, myths, and legends.
Сьюзан подумала, не позвонить ли ей Стратмору. Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется. Он и так скоро уйдет. Код, не поддающийся взлому. Сьюзан вздохнула, мысли ее вернулись к Цифровой крепости. Она не могла поверить, что такой алгоритм может быть создан, но ведь доказательство налицо - у нее перед глазами.
В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ послышался треск, и Стратмор приступил к решению стоявшей перед ним задачи - вырубить электричество. Рубильник был расположен за фреоновыми насосами слева от тела Чатрукьяна, и Стратмор сразу же его. Ему нужно было повернуть рубильник, и тогда отключилось бы электропитание, еще остававшееся в шифровалке. Потом, всего через несколько секунд, он должен был включить основные генераторы, и сразу же восстановились бы все функции дверных электронных замков, заработали фреоновые охладители и ТРАНСТЕКСТ оказался бы в полной безопасности. Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора.
Давайте же, ребята. -сказал Джабба. - Вы же учились в колледжах.