theories of acids and bases pdf

Theories Of Acids And Bases Pdf

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Acids have long been recognized as a distinctive class of compounds whose aqueous solutions exhibit the following properties:. Acidic solutions have a pH less than 7, with lower pH values corresponding to increasing acidity.

An acid—base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. It can be used to determine pH.

Each of the three theories has its own advantages and disadvantages; each is useful under certain conditions. When an acid or base dissolves in water, a certain percentage of the acid or base particles will break up, or dissociate see dissociation , into oppositely charged ions. Some substances act as acids or bases when they are dissolved in solvents other than water, such as liquid ammonia. It defines an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor.

1. Theories of Acids and Bases

Swedish Svante Arrhenius, in proposed the concept of acid and base based on the theory of ionization. This concept is only applicable to those compounds which dissolved in aqueous solution or you can say where water is the solvent. It covers many common acids, bases and their chemical reactions, but there are also other compounds that have the characteristics of acids and bases but they do not fit into Arrhenius concept. The concept of acids and bases have been defined many times in different ways. Several scientists put various definitions to characterize the acids and bases in which some of the concepts are quite narrow and some are comprehensive. Acids and bases are existing everywhere in our daily life.

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The Arrhenius Acid and Base Theory

This page describes the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis theories of acids and bases, and explains the relationships between them. It also explains the concept of a conjugate pair - an acid and its conjugate base, or a base and its conjugate acid. The Arrhenius theory is of historical interest only, and you are unlikely to need it unless you are doing some work on the development of ideas in chemistry. Hydrochloric acid is neutralised by both sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution. In both cases, you get a colourless solution which you can crystallise to get a white salt - either sodium chloride or ammonium chloride. In the sodium hydroxide case, hydrogen ions from the acid are reacting with hydroxide ions from the sodium hydroxide - in line with the Arrhenius theory.

In practice the hydronium ion is still customarily referred to as the hydrogen ion. The acidic behaviour of many well-known acids e. Furthermore, such acids and bases may be classified as strong or weak acids and bases depending on the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration produced in solution. The reaction between an acid and a base leads to the formation of a salt and water; the latter is the result of the combination of a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion. Arrhenius theory Article Media Additional Info. Home Science Chemistry Arrhenius theory chemistry. Print Cite verified Cite.

This theory is a generalization of the Arrhenius theory. The definition is expressed in terms of an equilibrium expression. Most acid-base reactions are fast so that the components of the reaction are usually in dynamic equilibrium with each other. The reverse of an acid-base reaction is also an acid-base reaction, between the conjugate acid of the base in the first reaction and the conjugate base of the acid. In the above example, acetate is the base of the reverse reaction and hydronium ion is the acid. Water is amphoteric as it can act as an acid or as a base.


The Water or Arrhenius Theory was widely accepted up to the early years of this century. It defines an acid as a hydrogen compound ionizing in water to give.


Arrhenius theory

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The Arrhenius Acid and Base Theory

Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory

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Acid–base reaction

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