Decision Making And Problem Solving Strategies Pdf Creator
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- Problem solving vs decision making – what is the difference?
- Learn Creative Problem Solving Techniques to Stimulate Innovation in Your Organization
- Problem solving
Problem solving - in particular creative problem solving CPS - is a key skill in learning how to accurately identify problems and their causes, generate potential solutions, and evaluate all the possibilities to arrive at a strong corrective course of action. Every team in any organization, regardless of department or industry, needs to be effective, creative, and quick when solving problems.
Problem solving vs decision making – what is the difference?
Decision making refers to making choices among alternative courses of action—which may also include inaction. While it can be argued that management is decision making, half of the decisions made by managers within organizations fail. Therefore, increasing effectiveness in decision making is an important part of maximizing your effectiveness at work. This chapter will help you understand how to make decisions alone or in a group while avoiding common decision-making traps.
Individuals throughout organizations use the information they gather to make a wide range of decisions. These decisions may affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization. But Sherron Watkins, a former Enron employee and now-famous whistleblower, uncovered the accounting problems and tried to enact change. Similarly, the decisions made by firms to trade in mortgage-backed securities is having negative consequences for the entire U. Each of these people made a decision, and each person, as well as others, is now living with the consequences of his or her decisions.
Because many decisions involve an ethical component, one of the most important considerations in management is whether the decisions you are making as an employee or manager are ethical.
Here are some basic questions you can ask yourself to assess the ethics of a decision. Despite the far-reaching nature of the decisions in the previous example, not all decisions have major consequences or even require a lot of thought.
For example, before you come to class, you make simple and habitual decisions such as what to wear, what to eat, and which route to take as you go to and from home and school. You probably do not spend much time on these mundane decisions. These types of straightforward decisions are termed programmed decisions; these are decisions that occur frequently enough that we develop an automated response to them.
The automated response we use to make these decisions is called the decision rule. For example, many restaurants face customer complaints as a routine part of doing business. Because this is a recurring problem for restaurants, it may be regarded as a programmed decision. To deal with this problem, the restaurant might have a policy stating that every time they receive a valid customer complaint, the customer should receive a free dessert, which represents a decision rule.
Making strategic, tactical, and operational decisions is an integral part of the planning function in the P-O-L-C planning-organizing-leading-controlling model. However, decisions that are unique and important require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.
These are called nonprogrammed decisions. This is a nonprogrammed decision because for several decades, customers of fast-food restaurants were more concerned with the taste and price of the food, rather than the healthiness. A crisis situation also constitutes a nonprogrammed decision for companies. For example, the leadership of Nutrorim was facing a tough decision.
They had recently introduced a new product, ChargeUp with Lipitrene, an improved version of their popular sports drink powder, ChargeUp. But a phone call came from a state health department to inform them that several cases of gastrointestinal distress had been reported after people consumed the new product.
Nutrorim decided to recall ChargeUp with Lipitrene immediately. Two weeks later, it became clear that the gastrointestinal problems were unrelated to ChargeUp with Lipitrene. However, the damage to the brand and to the balance sheets was already done. This unfortunate decision caused Nutrorim to rethink the way decisions were made under pressure so that they now gather information to make informed choices even when time is of the essence.
To ensure consistency around the globe such as at this St. The curriculum is taught in 28 languages. Decision making can also be classified into three categories based on the level at which they occur.
Strategic decisions set the course of organization. Tactical decisions are decisions about how things will get done. Finally, operational decisions are decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. For example, remember the restaurant that routinely offers a free dessert when a customer complaint is received.
The owner of the restaurant made a strategic decision to have great customer service. The manager of the restaurant implemented the free dessert policy as a way to handle customer complaints, which is a tactical decision.
And, the servers at the restaurant are making individual decisions each day evaluating whether each customer complaint received is legitimate to warrant a free dessert. In this chapter, we are going to discuss different decision-making models designed to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of nonprogrammed decisions. We will cover four decision-making approaches starting with the rational decision-making model, moving to the bounded rationality decision-making model, the intuitive decision-making model, and ending with the creative decision-making model.
The rational decision-making model describes a series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize the quality of their outcomes. In other words, if you want to make sure you make the best choice, going through the formal steps of the rational decision-making model may make sense.
It is the first major purchase of your life, and you want to make the right choice. The first step, therefore, has already been completed—we know that you want to buy a new car.
How many passengers do you want to accommodate? How important is fuel economy to you? Is safety a major concern? All of the potential options for purchasing your car will be evaluated against these criteria.
Before we can move too much further, you need to decide how important each factor is to your decision in step 3. If each is equally important, then there is no need to weight them, but if you know that price and gas mileage are key factors, you might weight them heavily and keep the other criteria with medium importance.
Step 4 requires you to generate all alternatives about your options. Then, in step 5, you need to use this information to evaluate each alternative against the criteria you have established. You choose the best alternative step 6 and you go out and buy your new car step 7.
Of course, the outcome of this decision will be related to the next decision made; that is where the evaluation in step 8 comes in. For example, if you purchase a car but have nothing but problems with it, you are unlikely to consider the same make and model in purchasing another car the next time!
While decision makers can get off track during any of these steps, research shows that limiting the search for alternatives in the fourth step can be the most challenging and lead to failure.
Conversely, successful managers are clear about what they want at the outset of the decision-making process, set objectives for others to respond to, carry out an unrestricted search for solutions, get key people to participate, and avoid using their power to push their perspective. The rational decision-making model has important lessons for decision makers. First, when making a decision you may want to make sure that you establish your decision criteria before you search for all alternatives.
This would prevent you from liking one option too much and setting your criteria accordingly. You may come across a car that you think really reflects your sense of style and make an emotional bond with the car. Then, because of your love for this car, you may say to yourself that the fuel economy of the car and the innovative braking system are the most important criteria. After purchasing it, you may realize that the car is too small for all of your friends to ride in the back seat when you and your brother are sitting in front, which was something you should have thought about!
Setting criteria before you search for alternatives may prevent you from making such mistakes. Another advantage of the rational model is that it urges decision makers to generate all alternatives instead of only a few.
By generating a large number of alternatives that cover a wide range of possibilities, you are likely to make a more effective decision in which you do not need to sacrifice one criterion for the sake of another. Despite all its benefits, you may have noticed that this decision-making model involves a number of unrealistic assumptions.
It assumes that people understand what decision is to be made, that they know all their available choices, that they have no perceptual biases, and that they want to make optimal decisions. Think about how you make important decisions in your life. Our guess is that you rarely sit down and complete all eight steps in the rational decision-making model. For example, this model proposed that we should search for all possible alternatives before making a decision, but this can be time consuming and individuals are often under time pressure to make decisions.
Moreover, even if we had access to all the information, it could be challenging to compare the pros and cons of each alternative and rank them according to our preferences. Anyone who has recently purchased a new laptop computer or cell phone can attest to the challenge of sorting through the different strengths and limitations of each brand, model, and plans offered for support and arriving at the solution that best meets their needs. In fact, the availability of too much information can lead to analysis paralysis , where more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.
For example, if you are looking to purchase a house, you may be willing and able to invest a great deal of time and energy to find your dream house, but if you are looking for an apartment to rent for the academic year, you may be willing to take the first one that meets your criteria of being clean, close to campus, and within your price range.
The bounded rationality model of decision making recognizes the limitations of our decision-making processes. According to this model, individuals knowingly limit their options to a manageable set and choose the best alternative without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives. An important part of the bounded rationality approach is the tendency to satisfice , which refers to accepting the first alternative that meets your minimum criteria.
For example, many college graduates do not conduct a national or international search for potential job openings; instead, they focus their search on a limited geographic area and tend to accept the first offer in their chosen area, even if it may not be the ideal job situation. Satisficing is similar to rational decision making, but it differs in that rather than choosing the best choice and maximizing the potential outcome, the decision maker saves time and effort by accepting the first alternative that meets the minimum threshold.
The intuitive decision-making model has emerged as an important decision-making model. It refers to arriving at decisions without conscious reasoning. When we recognize that managers often need to make decisions under challenging circumstances with time pressures, constraints, a great deal of uncertainty, highly visible and high-stakes outcomes, and within changing conditions, it makes sense that they would not have the time to formally work through all the steps of the rational decision-making model.
Yet when CEOs, financial analysts, and healthcare workers are asked about the critical decisions they make, seldom do they attribute success to luck. To an outside observer, it may seem like they are making guesses as to the course of action to take, but it turns out that they are systematically making decisions using a different model than was earlier suspected.
Research on life-or-death decisions made by fire chiefs, pilots, and nurses finds that these experts do not choose among a list of well-thought-out alternatives. Instead, they consider only one option at a time. The intuitive decision-making model argues that, in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns. Once a pattern is recognized, they can play a potential course of action through to its outcome based on their prior experience.
Due to training, experience, and knowledge, these decision makers have an idea of how well a given solution may work. If they run through the mental model and find that the solution will not work, they alter the solution and retest it before setting it into action.
If it still is not deemed a workable solution, it is discarded as an option and a new idea is tested until a workable solution is found. Once a viable course of action is identified, the decision maker puts the solution into motion. The key point is that only one choice is considered at a time. Novices are not able to make effective decisions this way because they do not have enough prior experience to draw upon. In addition to the rational decision making, bounded rationality models, and intuitive decision making, creative decision making is a vital part of being an effective decision maker.
In psychology , decision-making also spelled decision making and decisionmaking is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options, it could be either rational or irrational. Decision-making process is a reasoning process based on assumptions of values , preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker. Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving , particularly in European psychological research. Decision-making can be regarded as a problem-solving activity yielding a solution deemed to be optimal, or at least satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be more or less rational or irrational and can be based on explicit or tacit knowledge and beliefs. Tacit knowledge is often used to fill the gaps in complex decision making processes. A major part of decision-making, involves the analysis of a finite set of alternatives described in terms of evaluative criteria.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy , artificial intelligence , computer science , engineering , mathematics , medicine and societies in general are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology and cognitive sciences. The term problem solving has a slightly different meaning depending on the discipline. For instance, it is a mental process in psychology and a computerized process in computer science. There are two different types of problems: ill-defined and well-defined; different approaches are used for each.
The PISA mathematics framework defines the theoretical underpinnings of the PISA mathematics assessment based on the fundamental concept of mathematical literacy, relating mathematical reasoning and three processes of the problem-solving mathematical modelling cycle. The framework describes how mathematical content knowledge is organised into four content categories. It also describes four categories of contexts in which students will face mathematical challenges. The PISA assessment measures how effectively countries are preparing students to use mathematics in every aspect of their personal, civic and professional lives, as part of their constructive, engaged and reflective 21st Century citizenship. It includes concepts, procedures, facts and tools to describe, explain and predict phenomena.
PDF | Knowledge plays a central role in the decision making process, and it provides a better Summary: “This book focuses on the inherent issues to help practitioners in gaining understanding of software develop- Based on that, knowledge strategies unified KM platform, problem solving system and.
Learn Creative Problem Solving Techniques to Stimulate Innovation in Your Organization
Many factors affect the problem solving process and hence it can become complicated and drawn out when they are unaccounted for. Acknowledging the factors that affect the process and taking them into account when forming a solution gives teams the best chance of solving the problem effectively. Below we have outlined the key factors affecting the problem solving process. The most important factor in solving a problem is to first fully understand it.
Decision—making and problem—solving tips and techniques to ensure correct easily adapted for more complex decisions, such as in business strategy and You should be able to cut and paste this template into a text editor or spreadsheet. You finished the report last night, but your printer will not work today. After that, one of many problem solving strategies can be applied, hopefully resulting in a characteristics, it is not always the best method for making a rational decision.
Decision making refers to making choices among alternative courses of action—which may also include inaction. While it can be argued that management is decision making, half of the decisions made by managers within organizations fail. Therefore, increasing effectiveness in decision making is an important part of maximizing your effectiveness at work. This chapter will help you understand how to make decisions alone or in a group while avoiding common decision-making traps. Individuals throughout organizations use the information they gather to make a wide range of decisions.
When we feel such heightened uncertainty, our decision-making processes can break down, and we may act based on bias, emotion, and intuition instead of logic and fact. When we feel such heightened uncertainty, our decision-making processes can break down. We may become paralyzed and afraid to act, or we may act on the basis of bias, emotion, and intuition instead of logic and facts.
Как люди смогут защитить себя от произвола полицейского государства, когда некто, оказавшийся наверху, получит доступ ко всем линиям связи. Как они смогут ему противостоять. Эти аргументы она слышала уже много. Гипотетическое будущее правительство служило главным аргументом Фонда электронных границ. - Стратмора надо остановить! - кричал Хейл. - Клянусь, я сделаю. Этим я и занимался сегодня весь день - считывал тексты с его терминала, чтобы быть наготове, когда он сделает первый шаг, чтобы вмонтировать этот чертов черный ход.
На военную информацию. Тайные операции. Джабба покачал головой и бросил взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему была где-то далеко, потом посмотрел в глаза директору. - Сэр, как вы знаете, всякий, кто хочет проникнуть в банк данных извне, должен пройти несколько уровней защиты. Фонтейн кивнул. Иерархия допуска в банк данных была тщательно регламентирована; лица с допуском могли войти через Интернет.
Треск лесного пожара, вой торнадо, шипение горячего гейзера… все они слились в гуле дрожащего корпуса машины. Это было дыхание дьявола, ищущее выхода и вырывающееся из закрытой пещеры. Стратмор так и остался стоять на коленях, парализованный ужасающим, неуклонно приближающимся звуком. Самый дорогой компьютер в мире на его глазах превращался в восьмиэтажный ад.
Этот метод проб и ошибок был известен как применение грубой силы. На это уходило много времени, но математически гарантировало успех. Когда мир осознал возможности шифровки с помощью грубой силы, пароли стали все длиннее и длиннее.
Вряд ли он позволил бы ТРАНСТЕКСТУ простаивать целый уик-энд. - Хорошо, хорошо. - Мидж вздохнула. - Я ошиблась.
До смерти напуганный, Двухцветный замотал головой: - Нет.