Types Of Drugs And International Trafficking Routes Pdf
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- Transnational Organized Crime: A Growing Threat to National and International Security
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- International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses
- New Trends of Substance Abuse During COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Perspective
The global illegal drug trade represents a multi-dimensional challenge that has implications for U. Common illegal drugs trafficked internationally include cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. According to the U.
New brief, Shared Skies , demonstrates that examining the links between different trafficking operations including wildlife, drugs and weapons is key to securing the aviation industry against transnational crime. Washington, D. It draws upon case studies of illicit convergence which the report defines as the coincidence of multiple types of trafficking activities and, crucially, advises on how this information can be leveraged to disrupt criminal activities and stop trafficking of various kinds in its tracks. Shared skies identifies five levels at which convergence of illicit trades may occur: within the same shipment, coordinated by the same organization, using the same routes, passing through the same hub such as a city or airport or travelling through the same jurisdiction.
Transnational Organized Crime: A Growing Threat to National and International Security
John Calabrese. Drugs and stimulants have influenced Iranian social, economic, and political life for hundreds of years. In the 18th and early 19th century, opium was produced in Iran mainly for domestic consumption.
The expansion of the Far Eastern market in the late s spurred an increase in opium cultivation in Iran. Throughout the 20th century, Iran grappled, largely unsuccessfully, with the problems of opium addiction and trafficking. Government policies alternated between severe punishment and regulation. The first law to control opium use was enacted in A little over a decade later, the government issued ration coupons to addicts and imposed levies on opium exports.
Contrary to expectations, however, opium use did not slacken, and opium exports actually increased. Yet, in the subsequent year period, the area under poppy cultivation expanded, as did the volume of opium exports. These unwelcome developments prompted an eventual policy shift. In addition, the government instituted a system of opium rationing for addicts 50 years of age and older as well as for patients as prescribed by physicians; and laid the groundwork for establishing a nationwide system of health clinics and rehabilitation centers for addicts.
However, these latter plans went unfinished, as Iran entered a period of revolutionary turmoil. The Iranian Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War coincided with the protracted conflict in Afghanistan precipitated by the Soviet invasion. Throughout the s, Afghan poppy production flourished; meanwhile, in Iran, heroin use increased, as did heroin use by means of injection. Iran is a key link in a complex transnational opiates supply chain that is anchored in southwest Asia.
Two primary routes are used to smuggle heroin originating from Afghanistan. The Balkan Route, which runs through southeastern Europe, is the main supply line for Western Europe. The Iranian passageway is attractive to drug traffickers for the simple reason that they must cross just two borders to get to the European market.
The Northern and Southern lines are connected to the traditional Balkan network. The Hormuzgan line flows to Bandar Abbas, whose airport and ferry links to Dubai make it an easy trans-shipment point for deliveries to Europe and the Gulf, as well as incoming chemical precursors destined for heroin labs in Afghanistan.
Yet, these very areas are critically important nodal points in the highly segmented Iranian domestic and international opiates supply chain.
It is therefore not surprising that the territory of Baluchistan — a predominantly Sunni-populated ethnic-Baluch region that straddles the borders of Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan — has been a major opiates smuggling thoroughfare.
Indeed, Zahedan, the capital of the Iranian province of Sistan va Baluchistan, is a vital staging point for opiates trafficking. The province — desolate and underdeveloped — is notoriously lawless.
In the s, Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi reached an accommodation with Baluchi clan leaders whereby they would abandon drug smuggling in exchange for government cash benefits. But in the post-revolutionary period, this arrangement broke down amid a general deterioration of the relationship between Tehran and Baluchi clans.
Opiates smuggling in Sistan va Baluchistan has lately coincided with an escalation of violence there. Ethnic and religious minorities form part of the drug trafficking picture in other peripheral regions of Iran as well. Khorasan province, for example, hosts a large number of Afghan refugees. Drug traffickers along the Northern line, usually organized in smaller groups of up to 10 people, are mainly Afghans.
At the same time, opiates abuse has skyrocketed in Afghanistan, with some reports stating that many addicts are returning refugees who had developed their drug habits while residing in Iran. Approximately 35 per cent of male and 25 per cent of female drug abusers in Afghanistan first abused opium as refugees outside of Afghanistan, particularly in the Islamic Republic of Iran and in refugee camps in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan.
The Board also notes that evidence suggests a high risk of transmission of HIV among persons who abuse drugs by injection in Afghanistan, particularly among refugees returning from the Islamic Republic of Iran who abuse drugs by injection. The weakening of border controls and the breakdown of the security infrastructure of Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in created a fertile environment for smuggling. The influx of drugs into Iraq has contributed to a rising incidence of addiction among Iraqis and has opened up an additional pathway to the European market.
Sometimes disguised as pilgrims, they have set up operations in the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala, smuggling opiates into and through Jordan. As mentioned earlier, Iran is a major destination, not just a corridor for illicit opiates. Though estimates of drug abuse and addiction in Iran vary, the statistics most often cited are nonetheless stunning.
A Rapid Situation Assessment RSA of 10 urban centers conducted in reported a sharp increase in the availability of heroin, in heroin dependency, and in injecting drug use. Studies describing HIV risk in Iran, though relatively few in number, all point to injecting drug use as the main transmission mode for contracting the disease; moreover, they indicate that the number of injecting drug users appears to be climbing.
Emran Razzighi et al. Criminal violence e. In the first nine months of Iranian officials made public the dubious accomplishment of , drug-related arrests. Narcotics-related arrests in Iran during the first nine months of were running at an annual rate of almost ,, which is a typical level for the last several years. Twice as many drug abusers were detained as drug traffickers.
Iran has executed more than 10, narcotics traffickers in the last two decades. Iran has been at the forefront of efforts by the international community to combat the Afghan drug trade. In , the United States removed Iran from its list of drug-producing countries. As Iran strives to achieve this goal, it certainly also prevents drugs from reaching markets in the West.
At the national level, the main policymaking body responsible for planning and monitoring different aspects of the counter-narcotics campaign is the Drug Control Headquarters DCH , which was established in The DCH coordinates the drug-related activities of the police the leading enforcement unit in terms of drug seizures , the customs officers, the IRGC contingent, and the Ministries of Intelligence, Security, Islamic Guidance and Education, and Health.
Iran has also put in place a rudimentary counter-drug institutional network at the provincial and local levels. In , acting on an order by the Expediency Council, the Mohammad Rasulollah Central Headquarters and three tactical headquarters of Salman, Meqdad, and Abuzar were established in the eastern part of the country. As previously mentioned, upon taking power, the revolutionary leadership declared the use of all intoxicants to be illegal.
In keeping with the anti-Western tenor of the revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini declared that the distribution of heroin was a US-inspired conspiracy. But, as will be shown, both the interpretation and the application of drug-related laws in Iran have changed. Over the years, Iran has taken a number of steps to staunch the inflow of drugs from the east. The Iranian government has deployed more firepower to the periphery in order to reinforce local and provincial law enforcement officers.
Beginning in the mids, Iranian security forces stationed an estimated 30, men along the eastern border. In , Iran also created village-level Basij units, whose activities since then have broadened from defending villages to conducting offensive counter-narcotics operations.
According to Iranian officials, security forces confiscated nearly tons of drugs and arrested more than traffickers between March and March Over the past decade, a paradigm shift in Iranian counter-drug policies has been under way, marked by greater official acceptance of, and support for, demand and harm reduction interventions. Demand reduction encompasses a variety of measures that range from advocating the non-use of drugs, to treating individuals with problematic drug use and facilitating their reintegration in the community.
By the late s, Iranian authorities had begun to recognize the gravity of the HIV threat to the country. Springing from this realization were efforts, relatively uncoordinated at first, to raise public awareness about HIV. Importantly, the members of these bodies encompassed official and non-governmental organizations — ranging from the Ministry of Health, the Drug Control Headquarters, the national police, Iranian television, and the prison and welfare authorities to the research and academic institutions.
Paimaneh Hastaei declared:. In an attempt to strike a balance between prevention, treatment and law enforcement activities, the Islamic Republic of Iran has assumed that demand reduction is as important as supply reduction; special attention is paid to the creation of effective prevention programs targeted at youth and high-risk groups.
Support for demand and harm reduction interventions among senior Iranian officials has been building, albeit very gradually. Beginning in the early s, Iranian authorities introduced treatment regimes that range from abstinence-only to detoxification. In , medical intervention for drug abuse became legal and explicit. Opioid agonists 53 were used furtively in private clinics at first, and made officially available for detoxification programs only in Subsequent attempts have been made to improve pharmacological treatment and to introduce psychotherapeutic interventions for drug dependent persons.
The rise in the HIV infection rate, especially among intravenous drug users, catalyzed the shift in official attitudes towards a more favorable view of demand and harm reduction approaches. Razzaghi et al. Iran is one of just 22 countries that provide harm reduction services to incarcerated drug injection users DIUs. The government sponsors peer counseling, the dissemination of information to and hotlines for prisoners.
Bleach is made available to them for disinfecting needles. Inmates receiving methadone maintenance treatment MMT or ARV care are referred upon release to needle exchange programs and other health services. In , the government passed a law stipulating that a drug user who voluntarily seeks treatment will be exempted from punishment. The ascendancy of the reformists in Iranian politics thus fostered a climate conducive to generating progressive ideas regarding drug use.
The work of Iranian non-governmental organizations NGOs , the close cooperation of the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders in the government, and informed advocacy among senior policymakers converted this new thinking into concrete action.
Some analysts suggest that since the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to office in August , there has been a return to a primarily supply-side approach.
Kamin Mohammadi, for example, reports that, as of mid, there were 51 government facilities, private outpatient centers and an additional 26 transition centers. In early , the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran announced an emergency plan to provide 3, people abusing drugs by injection in Tehran with a three-month treatment course.
The Government also implemented a nationwide plan for the rehabilitation of drug addicts from November to March The Government is also taking various measures to deal with serious problems involving drug abuse in prisons.
Support for these efforts has come from seemingly unlikely sources. Prominent members of the NGO community deliberately targeted key religious figures and government officials, presenting them with data and analysis in efforts to enlist their support. The importance of grassroots organizations in building this policy network and in conceptualizing as well as conducting demand and harm reduction programs cannot be overstated. The work of two Iranian NGOs — the Aftab Society and Persepolis — is indicative of the key roles and contributions of grassroots organizations, the rich diversity of programs they administer, and their symbiotic relationship with state institutions.
The organization holds workshops in minority communities and, with support from the Ministry of Labor, conducts education workshops in factories across the country. Persepolis, founded in , employs a peer-driven model and a public health approach to drug use. Among other things, this organization operates the largest methadone maintenance treatment MMT center in Iran. Thus, beyond the actual work they do in the field, these organizations and others can be credited with helping to develop awareness and build capacity.
Their statements are laced with complaints that Iran has shouldered a great burden largely without the material assistance and credit it deserves. Some have charged that Western depravity is essentially responsible for unleashing the scourge of drugs on Muslim countries. And in more intemperate moments, there are a few who have threatened to allow smugglers freedom to operate unless the international community is more forthcoming with assistance.
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International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses
There is a relative dearth of literature on both the effects of cross-border interdictions and the impact of different types of interventions on international drug trafficking. This study identifies the main trafficking routes for cocaine and heroin, along with comparing the disruptive effects induced by targeted and non-coordinated interventions. It adopts a social network approach to identify the routes along which cocaine and heroin are trafficked, and then simulates the impact of different interdiction strategies on these two trafficking networks.
New Trends of Substance Abuse During COVID-19 Pandemic: An International Perspective
Metrics details. The Golden Crescent region of South Asia—comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan—is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent. The first step in addressing drug use is to recognize that it is not a character flaw but a form of mental illness, hence warranting humane treatment of drug users.
Some American Indian goods available for sale are not crafts per se, but rather traditional plant and animal products-- native herbs and spices like sage, tobacco, and sweetgrass, foods like wild rice and tea, traditional plant-based dyes and paints, and animal parts like tanned buckskin, feathers, and elk's teeth. Photos have emerged online once again from the home of a Mexican drug lord, and JOE January 25, A tunnel used by cartels to transport drugs from Mexico to the United States. Cockatoo dancing to queen. Hornady load data 45 acp. Mexico is the most populous Spanish speaking country in the world.
John Calabrese. Drugs and stimulants have influenced Iranian social, economic, and political life for hundreds of years. In the 18th and early 19th century, opium was produced in Iran mainly for domestic consumption. The expansion of the Far Eastern market in the late s spurred an increase in opium cultivation in Iran. Throughout the 20th century, Iran grappled, largely unsuccessfully, with the problems of opium addiction and trafficking. Government policies alternated between severe punishment and regulation. The first law to control opium use was enacted in
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Vienna Austria , 7 May - Measures implemented by governments to curb the COVID pandemic have led to drug trafficking routes by air being disrupted, along with drastic reduction or increased interdiction in trafficking routes over land. Some drug supply chains have been interrupted and traffickers are looking for alternative routes, including maritime routes, depending on the types of drugs smuggled. Synthetic drugs, such as methamphetamine tend to be trafficked across continents by air more than other types of drugs. Restrictions on air travel are, therefore, likely to have a particularly drastic effect on this illegal cargo. The bulk of cocaine is trafficked by sea and large cargos have continued to be detected in European ports during the pandemic. So far, heroin has mostly been trafficked by land. But due to the pandemic, maritime routes seem to be increasingly used now to traffic heroin as shown by seizures of opiates in the Indian Ocean.
The Chief Minister wished him a speedy recovery. Health Minister Dr. Rajeev Saizal also accompanied the Chief Minister. Chief Minister said that the tariff of hotels must be reviewed and revised by keeping an eye on the tariff of the other hotels situated in the vicinity. He said that the Corporation must also re-engineer its menu by introducing new dishes in its units and removing unnecessary items.
Transnational organized crime TOC poses a significant and growing threat to national and international security, with dire implications for public safety, public health, democratic institutions, and economic stability across the globe. Not only are criminal networks expanding, but they also are diversifying their activities, resulting in the convergence of threats that were once distinct and today have explosive and destabilizing effects. Developing countries with weak rule of law can be particularly susceptible to TOC penetration.
Беккер прижал дуло к виску убийцы и осторожно наклонился. Одно движение, и он выстрелит. Но стрелять не понадобилось. Халохот был мертв.
Когда же он пришел в себя, его голос был едва слышен, но исполнен решимости: - Мидж, вызовите аварийную команду. Немедленно. В другой стороне комнаты зазвонил телефон. Это был Джабба. ГЛАВА 107 Сьюзан понятия не имела, сколько прошло времени.
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