acute and chronic complications of diabetes pdf

Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes Pdf

By Huon L.
On Monday, May 10, 2021 10:11:51 AM

File Name: acute and chronic complications of diabetes .zip
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Published: 10.05.2021

Objective: To explore the patterns and prevalence of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM in Jazan region. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, and the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. Results: The prevalence of one or more complications due to T2DM was

Over time, the surge and crash of dissolved glucose and insulin that occurs in diabetes can end up causing irreparable damage to many body organs and systems. Doctors refer to this as "end-organ damage" because it can effect nearly every organ system in the body:. Hypertension is almost uniformly found in people with Type 2 Diabetes.

Metrics details. This study assesses the impact of self-reported oral health on the likelihood of experiencing acute and chronic complications among a cohort of previously diagnosed diabetics. Self-reported oral health status was linked to health encounters in electronic medical records until March 31,

Complications of Diabetes 2017

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type.

But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may sometimes not experience symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than Glucose — a sugar — is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear.

Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes. In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance.

Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too.

Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin. Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up.

When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes. Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, factors that may signal an increased risk include:.

Researchers don't fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and others don't. It's clear that certain factors increase the risk, however, including:. Pregnant women can develop gestational diabetes. Some women are at greater risk than are others. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:. Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes — and the less controlled your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications.

Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. Possible complications include:. Nerve damage neuropathy.

Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels capillaries that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, it may lead to erectile dysfunction. Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies.

However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby. Complications in your baby can occur as a result of gestational diabetes, including:. Complications in the mother also can occur as a result of gestational diabetes, including:. Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented. However, the same healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can also help prevent them:.

Lose excess pounds. Don't try to lose weight during pregnancy, however. Talk to your doctor about how much weight is healthy for you to gain during pregnancy. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits. Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem. Sometimes medication is an option as well. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin Glumetza, Fortamet, others may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain essential.

Have your blood sugar checked at least once a year to check that you haven't developed type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Request an appointment.

Overview Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. More Information Diabetes care at Mayo Clinic Diabetes and depression: Coping with the two conditions How diabetes affects your blood sugar. More Information Diabetes care at Mayo Clinic Amputation and diabetes Bone and joint problems associated with diabetes Diabetes and foot care Diabetes and liver Show more related information. Share on: Facebook Twitter.

Show references Ferri FF. Diabetes mellitus. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, Pa. Accessed March 6, Standards of medical care in diabetes — Diabetes Care. Papadakis MA, et al. Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia.

New York, N. Gabbe SG, et al. Diabetes mellitus complicating normal pregnancy. In: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Accessed Jan. Cunningham FG, et al. In: Williams Obstetrics. Artificial pancreas. Accessed March 11, Natural medicines in the clinical management of diabetes. Natural Medicines. Morrow ES.

Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Kasper DL, et al. Diabetes mellitus: Diagnosis, classification and pathophysiology.

Complications of diabetes: acute and chronic

Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Received 10 February Published 20 April Volume Pages — Review by Single anonymous peer review. Editor who approved publication: Prof.

Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin , or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss , polyuria increased urination , polydipsia increased thirst , and polyphagia increased hunger. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision , headache , fatigue , slow healing of cuts , and itchy skin.


include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma, and hypoglycemia.


Diabetes: Preventing Complications

Diabetes is widely recognized as an emerging epidemic that has a cumulative impact on almost every country, age group, and economy across the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation, in , approximately million people were suffering from diabetes worldwide, and this number is expected to exceed million by the year It is estimated that half of patients with diabetes are unaware of their disease and are thus more prone to developing diabetic complications. However, the cost of dealing with diabetes can be unaffordable in terms of money spent and lives lost.

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.

Chronic Complications of Diabetes

Hyperglycemia is due to a dysregulation in the complex mechanisms implicated in glucose homeostasis. Chronic hyperglycemia, as measured by hemoglobin A1c HbA1c , is a key risk factor for the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications, which in turn negatively influence the prognosis of patients with diabetes.

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