File Name: battle between heart and mind .zip
Some people feared globalization and questioned the benefits.
- Hearts and Minds (Vietnam War)
- The Heart vs. The Mind (scientific explanation) – A false dichotomy by the mind.
- Emotional Rescue: The Heart-Brain Connection
Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai, Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions.
Hearts and Minds (Vietnam War)
Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai, Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible gram organ containing billion neurones.
Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. Experiences gained from accidental injuries Phineas Gage or temporal lobe resection William Beecher Scoville ; studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland Descartes , and generally in the brain.
When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here. Millennia ago, we embarked on a quest for knowledge of the wonderful structure of man. The organ that puzzled earlier observers most was the human brain. Despite our many explorations, we remained in awe of this organ. We are now aware of nerve cells, their connections and their modes of communication amongst themselves and with a variety of other structures.
Injury to, and disease in, the brain often provides crucial insights on the role of its different parts. A dramatic example is the injury suffered by American railway foreman, Phineas Gage in Before his accident, Gage was liked by friends and acquaintances who considered him to be honest, trustworthy, hard working and dependable.
A freak accident caused a metal tamping rod to enter under his left zygomatic arch and exit through the top of his skull Barker, The accident left him with little if any intellectual impairment but after the accident, Gage became vulgar, irresponsible, capricious and prone to profanity. The company that had previously regarded him as the most efficient and capable of their employees dismissed him from his job.
His change in character after the accident made this the index case for personality change due to frontal lobe damage. Subsequent studies See, for example, Blumer and Benson, have shown a wide spectrum of abnormal behaviour compulsive and explosive actions, lack of inhibition, unwarranted maniacal suspicion and alcohol and drug abuse after injuries to and disease in the frontal or temporal lobes and their pathways to the deeper regions of the brain.
Modern marvels such as computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the nervous system have provided significant additional data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging now allows us to further localise function within the structure of the brain and correlate abnormalities of its structure and function. Even so, two entities remain enigmatic: the mind and the soul. Where are they located? Do they lie within the brain? Since neurophysicians treat patients with a wide variety of abnormalities of the brain and neurosurgeons lay bare the brain and often work in its interior, can they provide insights?
Neurologists and neurosurgeons rank high among scientists participating in philosophical debates about what might extend beyond the physical world. They are constantly dealing with patients who have fallen into the deep hole of unconsciousness. In their attempts at restoring normalcy to bodies and minds, they also grapple with life and death. Inevitably, they ponder spirituality and the dominion of the soul. We are embodied spirits and inspirited bodies, or, if you will, embodied minds and minded bodies.
Anonymous, The term is often used to refer, by implication, to the thought processes of reason. Prioreschi concluded that by the end of the 5 th century B. This changed with the works of Hippocrates ca. Quoted by Prioreschi . In his book De anima On the soul , Aristotle BC— BC felt that man is born with a blank slate tabula rasa on which experiences and perceptions are written to form the mind.
Although tabula rasa is a concept traditionally attributed to Locke, Aristotle first referred to it. Aristotle, :. What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing tablet on which as yet nothing actually stands written: this is exactly what happens with mind. Over the centuries that followed Avicenna — , Ibn Tufail c.
See Trimble, Jean Fernel — treated mind and brain together in his Physiology. He felt that the brain refined the animal spirits. Purged of all corporeal dross, they became concepts, finally even universal concepts and the ideas of the moral values Sherrington, He acknowledged the problems encountered in attempting to restrict the mind to the brain.
Pinker has recently discussed the role of nature vs nurture in the development of the mind. Locke recognized this problem and alluded to something called the understanding , which looked at the inscriptions on the white paper and carried out the recognizing, reflecting, and associating.
Neurologists and neurosurgeons see patients with injured or diseased brains. Neurosurgeons attempt restoration of the internal structure of the brain to normalcy or correct disordered function in select areas by such modes as deep brain stimulation or ablation.
Some operations are performed on patients who are awake. Observations on patients provided clues to the functions of the mind in relation to the structure of the brain. Neuroscientists can knock a gene out of a mouse a gene also found in humans and prevent the mouse from learning, or insert extra copies and make the mouse learn faster. Studies on patients who have suffered brain injury such as Phineas Gage have also provided interesting clues on the mind in relationship to the brain.
We now know that damaged frontal lobes can no longer exert inhibitory influences on the limbic system with consequent aggressive acts. The relation between the amount of grey matter in the frontal lobes and intelligence; the inferior parietal lobules and spatial reasoning and intuitions on numbers as in Albert Einstein and the third interstitial nucleus in the anterior thalamus and homosexuality Pinker, are a few more examples of specific areas of the brain linked to characteristics attributed to the mind.
Paul Broca showed that damage to the area subsequently named after him in the dominant cerebrum results in an inability to talk. Subsequent studies showed several other areas within the cerebrum that govern other aspects of speech. Bilateral frontal lobotomy and subsequent more sophisticated variants such as stereotaxic amygdalotomies or cingulotomies reduce an aggressive, maniacal individual to docility Heller et al. Wilder Penfield — , Canadian neurosurgeon, was known for his groundbreaking work on epilepsy.
He operated on patients with intractable epilepsy using local anaesthesia, ensuring that they remained awake throughout the operation. He stimulated areas of the brain surface in these patients in order to demarcate the part producing epilepsy. In many patients, electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain triggered vivid memories of past events. One patient, while on an operating table in Montreal, Canada, remembered laughing with cousins on a farm in South Africa.
It brings psychical phenomena into the field of physiology. It should have profound significance also in the field of psychology provided we can interpret the facts properly. We have to explain how it comes about that when an electrode producing, for example, 60 electrical impulses per second is applied steadily to the cortex it can cause a ganglionic complex to recreate a steadily unfolding phenomenon, a psychical phenomenon. But the mechanism seems to have recorded much more than the simple event.
When activated, it may reproduce the emotions which attended the original experience. On 1 September , Dr. William Beecher Scoville performed bilateral mesial temporal lobe resections on a patient known as H. The inadvertent severe damage to the important limbic structures resulted in permanent loss of memory in this patient Scoville, But, he could remember almost nothing after that.
Damage to discrete areas within the brain can thus produce a variety of disorders of the mind. In his Nobel Lecture, Sperry described the implications on concepts of the mind of the observations made after splitting the corpus callosum Sperry, Myers, showed that the cat with divided corpus callosum now had two minds either of which was capable of learning on its own, and of responding intelligently to changes in the world around it on its own.
Subsequent experiments with rats, monkeys and later with human epileptic patients gave similar results. Psychological tests showed that both John Does had remarkably similar personalities.
Except for language ability, they were about as much alike as identical twins. Their attitudes and opinions seemed to be the same; their perceptions of the world were the same; and they woke up and went to sleep at almost the same times. There were differences however. John Doe Left could express himself in language and was somewhat more logical and better at [planning…]. John Doe Right tended to be somewhat more aggressive, impulsive, emotional - and frequently expressed frustration with what was going on.
Such experiments led Sperry, Ornstein and others to conclude that each of the separated hemispheres has its own private sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories, in short, that they constitute two separate minds, two separate spheres of consciousness Gross, In addition to structure, we must consider the chemical processes within the brain.
The effects of caffeine, alcohol, marihuana and opium on the brain and mind are common knowledge. Chemicals within the nervous system, such as adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, the endorphins and encephalins, enable and modify the many functions of brain and mind and body we take for granted.
Carter described modern techniques for mapping the brain and mind. Sounding a cautious note, Carter pointed out that whilst the optimist might wish for a complete understanding of human nature and experience from such studies, others may insist that a map of the brain can tell us no more about the mind than a terrestrial globe speak of Heaven and Hell.
The brain is the organ of the mind just as the lungs are the organs for respiration. Consciousness, perception, behaviour, intelligence, language, motivation, drive, the urge to excel and reasoning of the most complex kind are the product of the extensive and complex linkages between the different parts of the brain.
Likewise, abnormalities attributed to the mind, such as the spectrum of disorders dealt with by psychiatrists and psychologists, are consequences of widespread abnormalities, often in the chemical processes within different parts of the brain. Jackson suggested that the evolutionary development of the prefrontal cortex is necessary to the emergence of self.
In this sense it could be called the organ of mind. However, this is not to say that self resides in the prefrontal cortex. Rather, the new structure allows a more complex coordination of what is anatomically a sensori-motor machine. He used the terms lowest, middle, and highest centres…as proper names…to indicate evolutionary levels.
Ascending levels show increasing integration and coordination of sensorimotor representations. The highest-level coordination, which allows the greatest voluntary control, depends on prefrontal activity.
The Heart vs. The Mind (scientific explanation) – A false dichotomy by the mind.
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Emotional Rescue: The Heart-Brain Connection
Cognition Today. The Mind scientific explanation — A false dichotomy by the mind. There is no heart vs. There are variations such as heart vs.
One thing is for certain: Balance can't be taken for granted past a certain age; it must be maintained — both in mind and body. If you've ever seen a friend or family member fall and suffer a major fracture, you know it's serious business. It seems obvious that general physical fitness and targeted exercises can improve balance and prevent falls.
Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование. - Здравствуйте, шеф. - Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор.
На стене криво висело баскетбольное кольцо. Пол был уставлен десятками больничных коек. В дальнем углу, прямо под табло, которое когда-то показывало счет проходивших здесь матчей, он увидел слегка покосившуюся телефонную будку. Дай Бог, чтобы телефон работал, мысленно взмолился Беккер. Двигаясь к будке, он нащупывал в кармане деньги. Нашлось 75 песет никелевыми монетками, сдача от поездки в такси, - достаточно для двух местных звонков.
Анализ затрат на единицу продукции. - Мидж торопливо пересказала все, что они обнаружили с Бринкерхоффом. - Вы звонили Стратмору. - Да. Он уверяет, что в шифровалке полный порядок. Сказал, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает в обычном темпе.
Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле. Он протягивал свою изуродованную руку… пытаясь что-то сообщить. Танкадо хотел спасти наш банк данных, - говорила она .
Это была та же информация, которую получил Стратмор, когда сам запустил Следопыта. Тогда они оба подумали, что он где-то допустил ошибку, но сейчас-то она знала, что действовала правильно. Тем не менее информация на экране казалась невероятной: NDAKOTA ETDOSHISHA. EDU - ЕТ? - спросила Сьюзан. У нее кружилась голова.
Все элементы игры поменялись местами. Невскрываемого алгоритма никогда не существовало, как не существовало и Цифровой крепости. Файл, который Танкадо разместил в Интернете, представлял собой зашифрованный вирус, вероятно, встроенный в шифровальный алгоритм массового использования, достаточно сильный, чтобы он не смог причинить вреда никому - никому, кроме АНБ. ТРАНСТЕКСТ вскрыл защитную оболочку и выпустил вирус на волю.
Стрелка топливного индикатора указывала на ноль. И, как бы повинуясь неведомому сигналу, между стенами слева от него мелькнула тень. Нет сомнений, что человеческий мозг все же совершеннее самого быстродействующего компьютера в мире.