anatomy and physiology of breast pdf

Anatomy And Physiology Of Breast Pdf

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Lactation is the process by which milk is synthesized and secreted from the mammary glands of the postpartum female breast in response to an infant sucking at the nipple. Breast milk provides ideal nutrition and passive immunity for the infant, encourages mild uterine contractions to return the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size i.

The Who, What, Where, When and Sometimes, Why.

The breasts are paired structures located on the anterior thoracic wall, in the pectoral region. They are present in both males and females, yet are more prominent in females following puberty. In females, the breasts contain the mammary glands — an accessory gland of the female reproductive system. The mammary glands are the key structures involved in lactation. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the breasts — their structure, innervation, vascular supply and any clinical relevance. The breast is located on the anterior thoracic wall.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast

The breast is an organ whose structure reflects its special function: the production of milk for lactation breast feeding. The epithelial component of the tissue consists of lobules , where milk is made, which connect to ducts that lead out to the nipple. Most cancers of the breast arise from the cells which form the lobules and terminal ducts. These lobules and ducts are spread throughout the background fibrous tissue and adipose tissue fat that make up the majority of the breast. The male breast structure is nearly identical to the female breast, except that the male breast tissue lacks the specialized lobules, since there is no physiologic need for milk production by males. Anatomically, the adult breast sits atop the pectoralis muscle the "pec" chest muscle , which is atop the ribcage.

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word mamma , "breast". The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates for example, humans and chimpanzees , the udder in ruminants for example, cows, goats, and deer , and the dugs of other animals for example, dogs and cats. Lactorrhea , the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation , the production of enough milk for nursing , occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years. It is directed by hormonal guidance from sex steroids. In a few mammalian species, male lactation can occur.

Breasts are made up of fat and breast tissue, along with nerves, veins, arteries and connective tissue that helps hold everything in place. The main chest muscle the pectoralis muscle is found between the breast and the ribs in the chest wall. Image source: National Cancer Institute www. Breast tissue is a complex network of lobules small round sacs that produce milk and ducts canals that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple openings during breastfeeding in a pattern that looks like bunches of grapes. During puberty, hormones produced by the ovaries and pituitary gland a part of the brain that controls growth and other glands in the body cause the breasts to grow.

Mammary gland

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image.

Management of Breast Diseases pp Cite as. This chapter is a review of the development, structure and function of the normal human breast. It is meant to serve as a backdrop and reference for the chapters that follow on pathologies and treatment. It presents an overview of normal gross anatomy, histology, and hormonal regulation of the breast followed by a discussion of its structural and functional changes from embryonic development through postmenopausal involution.

Overview of the Breast

Wondering About Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

Бринкерхофф послушно следил за движениями ее пальца. КОЛИЧЕСТВО ДЕШИФРОВОК О Мидж постучала пальцем по этой цифре. - Я так и думала. Деление на ноль. Бринкерхофф высоко поднял брови. - Выходит, все в порядке. - Это лишь означает, - сказала она, пожимая плечами, - что сегодня мы не взломали ни одного шифра.

Пол был уставлен десятками больничных коек. В дальнем углу, прямо под табло, которое когда-то показывало счет проходивших здесь матчей, он увидел слегка покосившуюся телефонную будку. Дай Бог, чтобы телефон работал, мысленно взмолился Беккер. Двигаясь к будке, он нащупывал в кармане деньги. Нашлось 75 песет никелевыми монетками, сдача от поездки в такси, - достаточно для двух местных звонков. Он вежливо улыбнулся озабоченной медсестре и вошел в будку.

Коридор, выложенный кафельными плитками, довольно круто спускался вниз, и Сьюзан держалась за перила, стараясь не отставать. Воздух в помещении становился все прохладнее. Чем глубже под землю уходил коридор, тем уже он становился. Откуда-то сзади до них долетело эхо чьих-то громких, решительных шагов. Обернувшись, они увидели быстро приближавшуюся к ним громадную черную фигуру. Сьюзан никогда не видела этого человека раньше.

Дэвид.

Попросите его передать паспорт Росио. Росио сопровождает мистера Густафсона сегодня вечером. Она непременно передаст ему паспорт. Можете оставить свое имя и адрес - наверняка мистер Густафсон захочет вас поблагодарить.

Ее можно скачать, но нельзя открыть. Очень хитро придумано. Ключ к Цифровой крепости зашифрован и недоступен.

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3 Comments

  1. Dahlia M.

    PDF | The mammary gland is an organ of ectodermal origin whose structure reflects its function: the production of milk for lactation. In humans.

    25.05.2021 at 19:07 Reply
  2. Karin B.

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    01.06.2021 at 11:23 Reply
  3. Nuiffeneser

    Request PDF | Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast | The mammary gland is classified as a branched tubuloalveolar structure with.

    02.06.2021 at 09:37 Reply

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