sources of data primary and secondary pdf

Sources Of Data Primary And Secondary Pdf

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Primary Data VS Secondary Data

Aside from consulting the primary origin or source, data can also be collected through a third party, a process common with secondary data. It takes advantage of the data collected from previous research, and uses it to carry out new research.

Secondary data is one of the two main types of data, where the second type is the primary data. These 2 data types are very useful in research and statistics, but for the sake of this article, we will be restricting our scope to secondary data. We will study secondary data, its examples, sources and methods of analysis.

Secondary data is the data that has already been collected through primary sources and made readily available for researchers to use for their own research. It is a type of data that has already been collected in the past. A researcher may have collected the data for a particular project, then made it available to be used by another researcher.

The data may also have been collected for general use with no specific research purpose like in the case of the national census. A data classified as secondary for a particular research may be said to be primary for another research. This is the case when a data is being reused, making it a primary data for the first research and secondary data for the second research it is being used for.

Sources of secondary data includes books, personal sources, journal, newspaper, website, government record etc. Secondary data are known to be readily available compared to that of primary data. It requires very little research and need for manpower to use these sources.

With the advent of electronic media and the internet, secondary data sources have become more easily accessible. Some of these sources are highlighted below. Books are one of the most traditional ways of collecting data. Today, there are books available for all topics you can think of. When carrying out research, all you have to do is look for a book on the topic being researched on, then select from the available repository of books in that area.

Books, when carefully chosen are an authentic source of authentic data and can be useful in preparing a literature review. There are a variety of published sources available for different research topics. The authenticity of the data generated from these sources depends majorly on the writer and publishing company. Published sources may be printed or electronic as the case may be. They may be paid or free depending on the writer and publishing company's decision.

This may not be readily available and easily accessible compared to the published sources. They only become accessible if the researcher shares with another researcher who is not allowed to share it with a third party. For example, the product management team of an organization may need data on customer feedback to assess what customers think about their product and improvement suggestions. They will need to collect the data from the customer service department, which primarily collected the data to improve customer service.

Journals are gradually becoming more important than books these days when data collection is concerned. This is because journals are updated regularly with new publications on a periodic basis, therefore giving to date information. Also, journals are usually more specific when it comes to research. For example, we can have a journal on, "Secondary data collection for quantitative data " while a book will simply be titled, "Secondary data collection".

In most cases, the information passed through a newspaper is usually very reliable. Hence, making it one of the most authentic sources of collecting secondary data.

The kind of data commonly shared in newspapers is usually more political, economic, and educational than scientific.

Therefore, newspapers may not be the best source for scientific data collection. The information shared on websites are mostly not regulated and as such may not be trusted compared to other sources.

However, there are some regulated websites that only share authentic data and can be trusted by researchers. Most of these websites are usually government websites or private organizations that are paid, data collectors. Blogs are one of the most common online sources for data and may even be less authentic than websites. These days, practically everyone owns a blog and a lot of people use these blogs to drive traffic to their website or make money through paid ads.

Therefore, they cannot always be trusted. For example, a blogger may write good things about a product because he or she was paid to do so by the manufacturer even though these things are not true. They are personal records and as such rarely used for data collection by researchers. Also, diaries are usually personal, except for these days when people now share public diaries containing specific events in their life.

A common example of this is Anne Frank's diary which contained an accurate record of the Nazi wars. Government records are a very important and authentic source of secondary data. They contain information useful in marketing, management, humanities, and social science research. Some of these records include; census data, health records, education institute records, etc. They are usually collected to aid proper planning, allocation of funds, and prioritizing of projects.

Podcasts are gradually becoming very common these days, and a lot of people listen to them as an alternative to radio. They are more or less like online radio stations and are generating increasing popularity.

Information is usually shared during podcasts, and listeners can use it as a source of data collection. Some other sources of data collection include:.

Popular tools used to collect secondary data include; bots, devices,library,etc. In order to ease the data collection process from the sources of secondary data highlighted above, researchers use these important tools which are explained below. There are lots of data online and it may be difficult for researchers to browse through all these data and find what they are actually looking for.

In order to ease this process of data collection, programmers have created bots to do an automatic web scraping for relevant data. These bots are " software robots " programmed to perform some task for the researcher. It is common for businesses to use bots to pull data from forums and social media for sentiment and competitive analysis. This could be a mobile phone, PC, or tablet that has access to an internet connection.

They are used to access journals, books, blogs, etc. This is a traditional secondary data collection tool for researchers. The library contains relevant materials for virtually all the research areas you can think of, and it is accessible to everyone. A researcher might decide to sit in the library for some time to collect secondary data or borrow the materials for some time and return when done collecting the required data. Radio stations are one of the secondary sources of data collection, and one needs a radio to access it.

The advent of technology has even made it possible to listen to radio on mobile phones, deeming it unnecessary to get a radio. Secondary data analysis is the process of analyzing data collected from another researcher who primarily collected this data for another purpose. Researchers leverage secondary data to save time and resources that would have been spent on primary data collection. Secondary data analysis process can be carried out quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the kind of data the researcher is dealing with.

The quantitative method of secondary data analysis is used on numerical data and is analyzed mathematically, while the qualitative method uses words to provide in-depth information about data. There are different stages of secondary data analysis, which involve events before, during and after data collection.

These stages includes; statement of :. Before collecting secondary data for analysis, you need to know your statement of purpose. That is, a clear understanding of why you are collecting the data—the ultimate aim of the research work and how this data will help achieve it. This will help direct your path towards collecting the right data, and choosing the best data source and method of analysis. This is a written-down plan on how the research activities will be carried out.

It describes the kind of data to be collected, the sources of data collection, method of data collection, tools, and even method of analysis. A research design may also contain a timestamp of when each of these activities will be carried out. Therefore, serving as a guide for the secondary data analysis. After identifying the purpose of research, the researcher should design a research process which will guide the data analysis process.

It is not enough to just know the research purpose, you need to develop research questions that will help in better identifying Secondary data. This is because they are usually a pool of data to choose from, and asking the right questions will assist in collecting authentic data. For example, a researcher trying to collect data about the best fish feeds to enable fast growth in fishes will have to ask questions like, What kind of fish is considered?

Is the data meant to be quantitative or qualitative? What is the content of the fish feed? Growth rate in fishes after feeding on it, and so on. After developing the research questions, researchers use them as a guide to identify relevant data from the data repository. For example, if the kind of data to be collected is qualitative, a researcher can filter out qualitative data.

The suitable secondary data will be the one that correctly answers the questions highlighted above. When looking for the solutions to a linear programming problem for instance, the solutions will be numbers that satisfies both the objective and the constraints. Any answer that doesn't satisfy both, is not a solution. This stage is what many classify as the real data analysis stage because it is the point where analysis is actually performed.

However, the stages highlighted above are a part of the data analysis process, because they influence how the analysis is performed. Once a dataset that appears viable in addressing initial requirements discussed. The data is evaluated to ensure that it really addresses the statement of the problem and answers the research questions.

After which it will now be analyzed either using the quantitative method or the qualitative method depending on the type of data it is. Most of the sources of secondary data are easily accessible to researchers. Most of these sources can be accessed online through a mobile device.

Primary and secondary sources

There are more data sources than ever. You want to avoid making important business decisions based on unreliable data. So which data sources should you use? Read on for a quick breakdown of secondary and primary data and tips for finding valuable insights for your market research needs. Secondary data is public information that has been collected by others. It is typically free or inexpensive to obtain and can act as a strong foundation to any research project — provided you know where to find it and how to judge its worth and relevance. Government statistics are widely available and easily accessed online, and can provide insights related to product shipments, trade activity , business formation, patents, pricing and economic trends, among other topics.


Data collection, primary vs. secondary, explains the ad- vantages and disadvantages of questions or to point the researcher to other sources of information.


Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources

Metrics details. The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods i. The use of secondary sources may be prone to measurement bias and confounding due to over-the-counter and out-of-pocket drug consumption, or non-adherence to treatment. In fact, it has been noted that failing to consider the origin of the data as a potential cause of heterogeneity may change the conclusions of a meta-analysis.

Secondary Data

Primary data and secondary data

Aside from consulting the primary origin or source, data can also be collected through a third party, a process common with secondary data. It takes advantage of the data collected from previous research, and uses it to carry out new research. Secondary data is one of the two main types of data, where the second type is the primary data. These 2 data types are very useful in research and statistics, but for the sake of this article, we will be restricting our scope to secondary data. We will study secondary data, its examples, sources and methods of analysis. Secondary data is the data that has already been collected through primary sources and made readily available for researchers to use for their own research.

A primary data source is an original data source, that is, one in which the data are collected firsthand by the researcher for a specific research purpose or project. Primary data can be collected in a number of ways. However, the most common techniques are self-administered surveys, interviews, field observation, and experiments. Primary data collection is quite expensive and time consuming compared to secondary data collection. Notwithstanding, primary data collection may be the only suitable method for some types of research.

Sources of information or evidence are often categorized as primary, secondary, or tertiary material. These classifications are based on the originality of the material and the proximity of the source or origin. This informs the reader as to whether the author is reporting information that is first hand or is conveying the experiences and opinions of others which is considered second hand. Determining if a source is primary, secondary or tertiary can be tricky. Below you will find a description of the three categories of information and examples to help you make a determination. These sources are records of events or evidence as they are first described or actually happened without any interpretation or commentary.

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5 Comments

  1. Centrosnaca

    Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk.

    27.05.2021 at 04:43 Reply
  2. Quicotisa1983

    PDF | This paper examined primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data is an original and unique data, which is directly collected by.

    27.05.2021 at 21:10 Reply
  3. Finlay L.

    METHODS/SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION: Secondary. data are available mainly in two forms- published data and unpublished data: PUBLISHED. DATA: Published data are more often the information required by individuals and organizations is published in some form or the other in consideration of user's need.

    30.05.2021 at 09:38 Reply
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    31.05.2021 at 20:56 Reply
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