# Estimating Costing Specification And Valuation In Civil Engineering Pdf

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Specifications and Valuation, , B. Upadhyay, Jan 1, , Building, pages. Basic Civil Engineering , L.

If the answer is YES, then the study of this subject is useless. But if the answer is NO, then the question arises, "which are the factors necessitating the study of this subject. Also economy and standard of the construction are two important things required.

Standard of construction can be achieved by careful supervision and selecting proper specifications whereas for Economy, planning is a must. The total quantity of various materials used in construction, if known before hand, can help the planning towards economy. Preliminary or Approximate estimateThis estimate is prepared to decide financial aspect, policy and to give idea of the cost of the proposal to the competent sanctioning authority.

It should clearly show the necessity of the proposal and how the cost has been arrived atThe calculations for approximate estimate can be done with the following data. The data can be had from a similar construction already complete in the nearby area, excuted by the department. For example: To calculate approximate estimate for a Hospital, per bed cost is calculated from the recent campleted hospital and is multiplied with the number of beds required.

Similarly for a house, per square metre plinth area is calculated and is multiplied with the proposed covered area. The specifications should also be same. For a road, expenditure of per kilometer length is taken, width also plays the role. The following documents should be attached with it. Plinth area Estimate Based on Rough Cost Plinth area of a building means Length x Breadth roofed portion only excluding plinth offsets.

The estimates are prepared on the basis of plinth areas of the various buildings proposed to be constructed. The rates are being arrived at the dividing the total cost of construction with its plinth area. For example if total cost of a building is Rs. Using this rate as basis of the next construction, approximate or rough cost of the proposal can be arrived at by multiplying the plinth area of the proposed building with this plinth area rate.

The following documents are attached with the estimate. Cubic Contents Estimate Based on Rough Cost The cubic contents of a building means plinth area x height of the building.

The height is taken from top of floor level to top of roof. The cubic contents of the proposed building are multiplied with cubic rates arrived at for the similar construction i.

Documents attached are as in No. In this, the estimate is divided in to sub-heads and quantities of various items are calculated individually. In the end of the detailed quantities, an abstract of cost giving quantities of each item and rate of every item according to the sanctioned schedule of rates shall be attached.

In case of non-schedule rates i. If however the work proposed to be constructed is located in a remote place, the provision for the carriage of the material shall be added in the estimate to avoid any excess over the administratively approved estimate later on.

Technical sanction is given on detailed estimate. The detailed estimate shall also provide for the cost of approach road, water supply, electric installations and acquisition of land etc, so as to call it a comprehensive estimate. Special repair estimateIf the work cannot be carried out of the annual repair funds due to certain reasons resulting in the genuine increase in cost, then special repairs estimate is to be prepard.

The reason of increase may be:- i In case of a building-opening of new doors, change of floors, replastering walls etc.

The old metal is taken out, consolidation by adding more metal is done and top surface is repainted. The application of an individual method depends upon the design and shape of the building. The different methods are as under Centre line method. Crossing method. Out to out and in to in method. Bay method. Service unit method.

Centre line methodThis method is suitable only if the offsets are symmetrical and the building is more or less rectangular in shape. The centre line of the building is determined carefully after doing deductions for repeated measurements as explained in the next problem.

This centre line acts as length for the complete calculations of the estimate. If the deduction is not cared for the results of estimates may be wrong.

All the walls should have the same section. The symmetrical offsets are a must as in the case of centerline method. The estimation in this book has been done using this method. Bay MethodThis method is useful and is generally followed in case of building having several bays.

The cost of the one class room is worked out and then multiplied by the number of bays in that building. The extra cost of the end walls and difference in framing. If there is any, should be made, so as to arrive at the correct cost. Service Unit Method. This method is followed in cases such as school building where there are so many class rooms. The cost of one class room us worked out and then multiplied by the number of class rooms to be constrused. In case of Hospitals, the service unit is a bed, in case of Water Tank, it is a litre and in case of Cinema Hall, the service unit is a seat.

The only requirement for the uses for this method is that the section of walls should be symmetrical throughout. How to Fix Centre Line. The Centre line of the given plain marked and centre to centre distances of walls are added. Refer given figure 3. The hatched portion R" comes twice, whereas portion "P" does not come even once. So "P" is compensated with "R" coming twice.

Thus in the case of L-junction, no deduction is to be done from the total length of centre line. At L-junction Walls. In this case, the hatched rectangular portion "Q" comes twice. At Cross Walls. In this case also, the hatched square portion "S" comes twice. So, for correct calculations, it is to be added only once.

Thus for a cross wall, the deducaiton is thickness of wall. All the quantities shall be calculated using In this chapter, estimates of buildings have dealt in details, complete with Report, k In case of Road estimate, rate per Km. Detailed specifications, giving the nature and class of work and material to be used. Rates for calculating abstract of cost. These should be approved ones.

Premium above C. Calculate the following items from the plan and section given in the fig. Roofing:-Shall be of R. Doors and Windows:-Doors and windows shall be of teak wood, paneled or paneled and glazed with gauze shutters to outer doors and fixed wire gauze to windows and ventilators Fittings shall preferably of brass or good quality metal.

Finishing:-The inside and outside walls shall have 1. Drawing, dining and bed rooms inside of walls shall have 2 coats of distemper and other rooms shall have three coats of white washing. The outside of the wall shall have two coats of colour washing over one coat of white washing. Painting:-Doors and windows shall be given three coats of white lead where exposed and white zinc or cream or grey silicate paint elsewhere. Miscellaneous:-First class buildings shall be provided with first class sanitary and water supply fittings and electrical installations.

A plinth protection 1. Plinth Area Rate Rs. Top course of the plinth shall be laid in cement motar Superstructure: -All walls shall be built of first class burnt bricks laid in mud mortar. The Following portions to be built in cement mortar Roofing:-All main rooms shall have R.

Floors:-the main rooms shall have conglomerate floors and verandahs shall have flat or brick on edge floors over cement concrete and sand. Doors and Windows:-Interior and exterior surface of wall shall be cement plastered 1. Painting: -Doors and windows shall be painted with three coats of chocolate paint or any other approved paint.

## Estimating Costing in Civil Engineering Basic

Apart from the theory, readers will be exposed to various problems that can also be encountered. Readers will gain an overall perspective of the different aspects of estimating, specification, costing, construction, and tendering. The author has included clues, which will show the reader how to first understand the problem and then how to proceed in solving it. The author addresses some important concepts in Civil Engineering such as construction management, cost specification, and estimation. The book contains twenty six chapters, three appendices, and a detailed index.

## Estimation and Costing book by M. Chakraborti

Standard Schedule of rates and standard data book by public works department. S Estimation, Costing and Specifications by M. Chakraborthi; Laxmi publications.

#### Table of Content

Civil IITM. Search this site. Home Electives CE Systems Engineering — CHM2. English Studies HSM8. Development Policy HSM9.

Apart from the theory, readers will be exposed to various problems that can also be encountered. Readers will gain an overall perspective of the different aspects of estimating, specification, costing, construction, and tendering. The author has included clues, which will show the reader how to first understand the problem and then how to proceed in solving it. The author addresses some important concepts in Civil Engineering such as construction management, cost specification, and estimation. The book contains twenty six chapters, three appendices, and a detailed index. The text concludes with a chapter devoted to Review Questions and a Rates Schedule.

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