stress and strain definition pdf

Stress And Strain Definition Pdf

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A model of a rigid body is an idealized example of an object that does not deform under the actions of external forces. It is very useful when analyzing mechanical systems—and many physical objects are indeed rigid to a great extent. The extent to which an object can be perceived as rigid depends on the physical properties of the material from which it is made.

Stress (mechanics)

The internal resistance force per unit area acting on a material or intensity of the forces distributed over a given section is called the stress at a point. It uses original cross section area of the specimen and also known as engineering stress or conventional stress. This unit is called Pascal Pa. As Pascal is a small quantity, in practice, multiples of this unit is used. Let us take an example: A rod 10 mm 10 mm cross-section is carrying an axial tensile load 10 kN.

In continuum mechanics , stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material. For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting an overhead weight , each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it. When a liquid is in a closed container under pressure , each particle gets pushed against by all the surrounding particles. The container walls and the pressure -inducing surface such as a piston push against them in Newtonian reaction. These macroscopic forces are actually the net result of a very large number of intermolecular forces and collisions between the particles in those molecules. Strain inside a material may arise by various mechanisms, such as stress as applied by external forces to the bulk material like gravity or to its surface like contact forces , external pressure, or friction. Any strain deformation of a solid material generates an internal elastic stress , analogous to the reaction force of a spring , that tends to restore the material to its original non-deformed state.

Mechanical properties of materials: Stress and strain

Stress and strain are two quantities that are used to define the nature of the applied force and resulting deformation. Stress is defined as the internal restoring force applying per unit area of the deformed body. Tensile stress : Tensile stress is defined as the increase in length of the body due to applied force. Compressive stress: It is defined as the decrease in length of the body due to applied force. Strain is defined as the change in shape or size of a body due to deforming force applied on it.

Every component in a linear motion system experiences some form of loading due to applied forces or motion. Strain is the deformation or displacement of material that results from an applied stress. The most common way to analyze the relationship between stress and strain for a particular material is with a stress-strain diagram. For many materials, the proportional limit and the elastic limit are the same or nearly equal. In the stress-strain curve shown here, the proportional limit and the elastic limit are assumed to be the same. As long as the applied stresses are below the proportional limit, stress-strain relationships are the same whether the material is under tension or compression.

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is defined as, the deformation force per unit area of the body or material.


Book on Mechanics of Materials(Simple Stress and Strain)

A model of a rigid body is an idealized example of an object that does not deform under the actions of external forces. It is very useful when analyzing mechanical systems—and many physical objects are indeed rigid to a great extent. The extent to which an object can be perceived as rigid depends on the physical properties of the material from which it is made. For example, a ping-pong ball made of plastic is brittle, and a tennis ball made of rubber is elastic when acted upon by squashing forces. However, under other circumstances, both a ping-pong ball and a tennis ball may bounce well as rigid bodies.

Stress and strain are two quantities that are used to define the nature of the applied force and resulting deformation. Stress is defined as the internal restoring force applying per unit area of the deformed body. Tensile stress : Tensile stress is defined as the increase in length of the body due to applied force. Compressive stress: It is defined as the decrease in length of the body due to applied force.

Strain and Stress

Stress-Strain Curve. Stress can cause strain, if it is sufficient to overcome the strength of the object that is under stress. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

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